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63 Cards in this Set

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Describe the Reformation
(RELIGION & RELISIOUS ORDERS)
1500-1700 Dark ages of NSG religious movemnt beginning early in the 16th century that resulted in the formation of various Protestant churches. Monasteries (catholic) were closed. B/C many of these orders were involved in care of the sick, nursing care suffered. Caused the almost total disappearance of male nurses. Most catholic nursing orders after 1500 were made of women.
Describe the Order of the deaconesses.
(RELIGION & RELISIOUS ORDERS)
Earliest record of Christian nursing. First public health nursing organization. Went into homes of those who needed care.
Describe Sisters of Mercy
(RELIGION & RELISIOUS ORDERS)
Roman Catholic society formed by Catherine McAuley in Dublin. The sisters nursed victims of the cholera epidemic in 1832. Their work spread throughout the world, including several Mercy hospitals in U.S.A.
Describe Sister of Charity
(RELIGION & RELISIOUS ORDERS)
(1633) Founded by ST. Vincent de Paul widely known as visting nurses. Attended to ill in hospitals, asylums and poor-houses. First superintendent, Louse de Gras establishe the first nursing education program.
Describe the Benedictine order
(RELIGION & RELISIOUS ORDERS)
Order of ST. Benedict, a foremost religious order, located halfway between Rome and Naples. Workers were sent throughout Europe, raising standards of education and culture and providing better care for the sick and poor. Care of the sick was placed above every other duty of the monks. Bathing was stressed as treatment for the sick.
Describe the Monastic orders(RELIGION & RELISIOUS ORDERS)
Knights Hospitallers of the Middle Ages: Military religious orders founded by monks in the 11th to 13th centureis. Most prominent was the Order of St. Benedict. Their most important duty was to care for the sick. The considered bathing a priority and established infirmaries within the monasteries. These orders sent monks throughout Europe to provide care for the sick and the poor.
Crimean War
(MILITARY INFLUENCE)
English casualties were housed in filthy barracks with no beds, furniture, basins, soap, towels, or eating utensils. The death rate was 60%. Newly aroused social conscience of England called for a reform. Florence Nightingale served, mortality rate from 42.7% to 2.2% in 6 months by focusing on hygiene, and sanitation. Control of the HC environment.
American Civil War
(MILITARY INFLUENCE)
(1861-1865) MAJOR CONTRIBUTION TO NSG) When public saw the care nurses gave to soliders they recognized the need for trained nurses to care for wounded soldiers. Lay women who had follwed their husbands to the battlefield often nursed injured soldiers. The Hospitallers of St. John was on of the orders to evolve from the Civil War.
NOTABLEL NURSES OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
(MILITARY INFLUENCE)
Clara Barton
Harriett Tubman
Sojourner Truth
Dorothea Dix (suerintendent new nurses)
World War I
(MILITARY INFLUENCE)
Caused the demand for nurses to increase. Nurses needed a certification of moral character and professional qualification by their superintendent of nurses and they had to be unmarried. Male nurse were usually put in regular fighting units and their skills went unused. Development of military hospitals provided medical and surgical experience to nursing students.
Describe the Great depression & stock market crash effects on nursing.
The closing of nursing schools and the federal initiatives of the 1930s encouraged hospitals to employ graduates for staff positions.
Give the the origins of the 8 hour workday for nurses
In the interest of good nursing, we believe that nuses, in caring for acutely ill patients, should not be expected to work more than 8 hours out of 24. Recommendation accepted by the Board of Directors ANA (8/25/33)
Describe World War II (1)
(MILITARY INFLUENCE)
NSG shortage in hospitals, in the community and in industry. National Nursing Council for War Services (1940), chaired by ANA president Julia Stimson, developed a plan to increase the # of nurses in the country as quickly as possible.
Describe World War II (2)
(MILITARY INFLUENCE)
THE BOLTON ACT The plan, introduced to Congress by Frances Payne Bolton, congresswoman from Ohio, CREATED THE US CADET NURSE CORPS. PHS subsidized NSG ED- tution, fees, books, uniforms and monthly stipends, in exchange for service.
Describe World War II (3)
(MILITARY INFLUENCE)
Stepped up efforts to encourage women to enter nursing programs. Guidelines 17-35, in good health, and with a good academic record. Married women and other who could work only part-time became acceptable to employers. Full commission status was granted in the military to nurses.
Describe the role of women in the workforce and society and its effects on nursing.
(SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS)
As womens role changed so did nurses, initially menial tasks cleaning etc that was expected of a wife. (many women went into nursing to avoid marriage service)
Describe the role of men in Nursing.
(SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS)
Parabolani brotherhood represents one of the earliest organizations for men in nursing. 1888 the Mills School of Nursing at Bellevue Hospital prepared only male nurses.
Describe the womens movement and its effects on nursing.
(SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS)
Lavinia Dock active feminist, firmly believed the advancement of nursing could not be achieve until women were treated equally in society, ANA echoed her fellings in the 1960's by expressing strong support for the Equal Righ Admendment (ERA).
Describe the industrial Revolution and its effects on nursing.
(SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS)
Increased the population in cities urban areas, therefore increasing the need for nurses.
Describe the effect of immigration on nursing.
(SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS)
The influx of immigrants to the USA has added to the diversity of America. The new immigrants are primarily from Latin America and Asia. For the first time in history the majority of immigranst speak just one language- Spanish. Increased need for cultural sensitivity in nursing, added to curriculum of NSG programs, increased need for bilingual nurses.
Describe the Labor movements of the 1950's effects on nursing.
(SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS)
ANA leaders began to discuss the use of collective bargaining techniques to obtain the salaries and working conditions that the nurses needed. ANA is a registered labor organization but is not involved in direct collective bargaining. Individual State Nurses Associations are invovled in certification bargaining units, negotiating & administering contracts.
Describe the Economic Security Program in 1952.
(SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS)
We state unequivocally our main obligation is to patients. The difficulties we get into, however, are that this obligation to patients is frequently regarded mistakenly as the reason why nurses should not pursue their rights as Americans to a standard of living and working condtions consistnet with their professional status. Statement made by: Elizabeth K. Porter, EdD, RN, ANA president (1950-1954); Ohio Nurses Association President (1958-1960).
Florence Nightingale
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
Considered the FOUNDER OF MODERN NURSING, 1st NURSING THEORIST she was influential in developing nursing education, practice, and administration stressed that nsg was not a domestic, charitable service, but a respected profession requireing advanced education and specialized knowledge. She believed stronglein in continuing education. "Role of nursing: put the body in such a state as to be free of disease or to recover from disease." Established the Nightingale Training School for nurses at ST. Thomas' Hosptiatl in London (1860)
Clara Barton
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
(1812-1912) voluntered as a nurse during Civil War, organized the American Red Cross.
Dorothea Dix
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
(1802-1887) crusaded against the cruel and inhumane treatment of patients in the early mental hospitals. Her descriptive reports and careful documentation eventually resulted in the construction of state psychiatric institutions. Care was improved, stressed that good health, high moral character, and plain appereance in nurses were valid substitues for professional training.
Virginia Henderson
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
1966 her concise definition of nursing. Described nursing as assiting individuals, sick or well, to regain independence. She list 13 basic components of nursing care.
Harriet Tubman
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
Known as "The Moses of Her People" for her work with the underground railroad. During the Civil War she nursed the sick and suffering of her own race.
Sojourner Truth
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
An abolistionist, Underground railroad agent, and woment's rights advocate, she was a nurse during the Civil War and worked as a nurse & counselor for the Freedman's Releif Association after the war.
Isable Hampton Robb
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
Made radical changes to nursing education. She cut down student's workday to 10 hours and eliminated free private duty services 1st President of the ANA.
Mary Breckenridge
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
(1881-1965) Introduced a model rural health care system into the United States in 1925- The Frontier Nursing Service in Kentucky (FNS) created a decentralized system of nurse-midwife, district nursing ceters, and hospital facitlities. Providing both preventive and curative nursing.
Mildred Montag
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
"Community College Education for Nurses" 1952 The development of ADN education had its inception as the result of a research project conducted by Montag. The project sought to (1)alleviate a critical shortage of nurses by decreasing the length of NSG ed. (2) provide a sound education base for nursing instruction by placing the program in community/junior colleges. AD was proposed to be a terminal degree (not ladder to BSN)
Lavina Dock
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
Founder of the Nurse Practioner model
LAVINA DOCK (1858-1956)
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
A nursing leader who was active in the protest movement for women's rights that resulted in the U.S. constitution amendment allowing women to vote in 1920 firmly believed that advancement of nursing could not be achieved until women were treated equally in society.
MARY MAHONEY
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
The first trained black nurse. Trained at the New England Hospital for women & children. (1879)
HILDEGARD PAPLAU
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
(Psychiatric nursing) Interpersonal relationship model coinded psychodynamic relationship/nsg
MELINDA ANN (LINDA) RICHARDS
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
America's first trained nurse. She became a key figure in the development of nursing education. She spent her career moving from hopital to hospital.
MARTHA ROGERS
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
Science of unitary human being theory focuses on the individual as a unified whole in constant interaction with the enviroment. 1989
MARGARET SANGER (1879-1966)
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
Opened the first birth control clinic in the US (Brooklyn) spent time in jail as a result of her efforts.
LILLIAN WALD (1867-1940)
(SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN NURSING)
*Founded the HENRY STREET SETTLEMENT in New York 1859 (w/ MARY BREWSTER & LAVINA DOCK)
*Organized on of the 1st visiting nurse services in the US set the foundation for today's community and home care nursing. Considered the founder of community & public shcool nursing in U.S.A.
*Actively participated in forming public regarding the health and welfare of the poor throughout her life.
*Significantly improved conditions for nuses and economically disadvantaged clients by knowing, telling, and acting.
Name significant studies and reports on nursing.
1.)Goldmark report of 1923
2.)Brown report 1948
3.)Community College Ed for nsg 1959
4.)ED & Prep for Nurse Pract/ CNA (ANA 1965)
5.)Lysaught report 1970
6.)Study of Credentialing 1979
7.)American Academy of Magnet Hospitals 1983
8.)Sch. in SRVS. to nation 1993
9.)Pew Health prof Comm. 1995
10.)Healthy People 2010/2000
Name significant nusing organizations.
*International Council of Nurses (ICN)
*American Nurses Association (ANA)
*National Council of State Board of Nursing
*National Leage for Nursing (NLN)
*Sigma Theta Tau International
(STTI)
*National Student Nurses Association (NSNA)
*American Academy of Nursing (AAN)
*National Organization for Associate Degree Nurses (NOADN)
Organization for HISTORICALLY UNDERREPRESENTED GROUPS
*National Association for Hispanic Nurses
*National Black Nurses Association
*Native American Nurses Association
*American Assembly for Men in Nursing (AAMNI)
Name Clincal Specialty Organizations
*American Association of Critical Care Nurses
*Oncology Nursing Society (ONS)
*Association of Perioperative Registered Nurses
*American Organization of Nurse Executives (ANOE)
*American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN)
Describe the influence the report titled "An abstract for Action" A.K.A. "Lysaught report" 1970 had on nursing:
Recommendations:
1.)More research in nursing ed/practice.
2.)Funding for nurse ed/research.
3.)Advancement opp for diploma/ADN to achieve BSN's
4.)Higher salaries
5.)Recruitment of males
Describe the influence the Goldmark Report of 1923 had on nursing:
Study launched by Rockefeller Foundation with the purpose of establishing minimum ed standards
Recommended:
1.) Basic Hosp training
2.) Post grad classes & field work in Public health nursing ed.
3.) Endowment for all types of nursing education.
Describe the influence the report "Nursing for the Future", A.K.A. "The Brown Report of 1948" had on nursing
Funded by the Carneigie Foundation with the purpose of documenting deficiencies and evaluatin quality of nursing education in U.S.A.
28 recommendation, many of which focused on the need to improve ed prep by basing ed on a sound body of scientific nursing knowledge.
Describe the influence the report "The Education of Nursing Technicians", A.K.A. "The Montage Study" had on nursing
1951, it proposed a continuum of nursing functions that consisted of: assisting functions, technical functions, and professional functions.
Describe the influence the report "The study of Credentialing in Nursing: A New Approach" 1979 had on nursing:
Was a review of the credentialing in nursing that supported the development of a credentialing center for nurses
Describe the influence the "National Institute of Medicine Study" had on nursing
Resulted in 21 Recommendations:
False assumption that there was no longer a nursing shortage and recommended that government funding be targeted at graduate study in nursing and at training nuring specialists.
**One result of this study was a serious national shortage of nursing, esp in LTC.
Describe the influence the "National Commission on Nursing Study" 1983 had on nursing
Focused on issues of the work enviroment including job satisfaction, recuitment and retention, and relationships among nurses, physician, and hosp. administrative personnel. Addressed the nurses' ed prep to enable independent decision making. (met some resistance)
Describe the influence the "Health Professions Education for the Future: Schools in Service to the Nation" 1993 had on nursing
1 primary recommendation was for greater emphasis on teamwork and interdisciplinary collaboration. This study also projected the future need for nurse practitioners, CNM, and more nurses skilled in health promotion activities.
Describe the influence the "Pew Health Professions Commision Report" 1995 had on nursing
Various trends in health care were identified, and primary concerns related to a change in profession education, professional licensure, and workforce policy in health care.
Describe the influence "Healthy People 2000, 2010" study had on nursing
An initiative by the U.S. Dept of health and human services and the U.S. Public Health Service with goals of educating the public on healthy behaviors ex: Eliminating smoking
Exercising
Moderation with alcohol
Give information on the ICN/International Council of Nurses:
Founded 1899; ANA and C.N.A. are members, A forum where international organizations can work together to promote the health of people and care for the sick. Goals 1.) Improve standards of nursing. 2.)Development of strong national nursing Assoc. 3.)Serve as an authoritativ voice for nursing professionals worldwide.
Give information on the ANA/American Nurses Association
Federation of state Associations
Professional Nursing Organization Membership open to RN holding valid liscense only.
Purpose: working for the improvement of health standards and availability of health care to all people. Foster high standards of nursing. Simulate & promote the professional development of nurses
Name the official publication of the ANA
American Journal of Nursing (AJN)
Name the goals of the ANA
1.) Assure that the RN is an essential provider in all practice setting through education, research, collective bargaining, workplace advocacy, legislation, and regulation
2.) Collectively and collaboratively advocate for access to comprehensive quality health care services that are affordable for all people.
3.)Multipurpose organizations will continue to be strong and effective at the state, national, and international levels.
Give information on the National Council of State Board of Nursing
*Members consist of 61 boards of nursing
*Publishes a quarterly newsletter "Issues"
*Offers a series of video-tapes on the NCLEX
*Develops the NCLEX exam to test the entry-level competence of candidates for nursing licensure.
*Regulates entry to nursing practice, continuing safe practice, and nursing education programs.
Give information on the NLN/National League of Nursing
*Grew out of several preexisting nursing organizations and absorbed many of the functions they had performed.
*The official accrediting agency for nursing schools,education and public health/community health practice became the NLN domain
*Memebership nursing schools HC agencies, nurses (all levels)laymen, educators & students.
*Concerned with improving nursing education, nursing service, and the delivery of health care in U.S.
Give information on the STTI/Sigma Theta Tau International
*Honor society of professional nursing, dedicated to improving the health of people worldwide through increasing the scientific base of nursing practice.
*Its members are nursing scholars committed the the pursuit of excellence in clinical practice, education, research and leadership. Excludes ADN & LPN's
Give information on the NSNA/National Student Nurses Association
*Dedicated to fostering the professional development of nursing students enrolled in ADN, BSN, diploma, and generic graduate nursing programs.
*Autonomous, student financed, and student run. It si the voice of all nursing students speaking on issues of concern to nursing students.
*Memebership is open to students enrolled in state-approved programs leading to licensure as an RN
*Imprint is their publication
*"Breakthrough to NSG Program" with and obj to increase the # of individuals entering into NSG profession.
Give information on the AAN/American Academy of Nursing
*Organization of professional nurses in the US that focuses on standards of health care, nurses' professional development and economic and general welfare of nurses.
*GOAL: Optimize the well-being of the American People and the world.
Give information on the NOADN/National Organization for Associate Degree Nursing
*1986 represents ADN education & practice.
*Reinforce value of an ADN education.
*Maintain endorsement of RN licensure from state to state.
*Retain the NCLEX-RN examination for Associate NSG grads.
*The only organization for a specific level of nursing.