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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
what is the resting potential of a neuron
-60 to -70mV
Is K+ in the highest conc. inside or outside of the cell?
hemolysis causes increase in potassium levels
what is hyperpolarization?
membrane becomes more negative than at its resting state (this occurs after the neuron has fired?
what is a synapse?
physical meeting points between cells
what is the space between neurons called?
synaptic cleft
what is the most widely distributed inhibitory transmitter
what is the inhibitory neurotransmittor found in the brainstem, spinal cord and retina
always makes up 1/3 of collagen
what are the 2 cholinergic receptors?
where are cholinergic nicotinic receptors found
skeletal m.
what does curare block
nicotinic receptors
where are cholinergic muscarinic receptors found
smooth muscle
what are 2 examples of adrenergic neurotransmitters
are adrenergic neurotransmitters found in the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous system?
what usually terminates the action of a neurotransmitter
what are the two types of synapses?
chemical synapse
electrical synapse
what type of synapse has the fastest transmission
electrical synapse
what are the 3 embryonic layers?
ectoderm (outer layer)
mesoderm (middle layer)
endoderm (inner layer)
which embryonic layer gives rise to the CNS
what does mesoderm form
*which embryonic layer has no contribution to ocular structures
* endoderm
ventral signals from the neural tube differentiate into what type of cells
motor cells
chemical signals from the dorsal side of the neural tube differentiate into what type of cells?
sensory cells
where are chromafin cells located
adrenal medulla
what ocular structures do neural crest cells give rise to?
parts of the cornea and vitreous
another term for the diencephalon is?
optic cup
formation of the retina forms from an outpocketing of what part of the neural tube?
what attaches the lateral ventricle and 3rd ventricle
interventricular foramina
what passageway connects the 3rd and 4th ventricle
sylvian (cerebral) aqueduct
what differentiates an UMN (upper motor neuron)from a LMN (lower motor neuron)
LMN axons are mainly in the PNS (peripheral nerv. sys.)

UMN axons are entirely in the CNS

both have cell bodies which are in the CNS
which cervical nerves innervate the neck
Which cervical nerves innervate upper extremities
(T1-12 also innervate upper extremities)
How many Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbral and Sacral vertebrae are there
Cervical 8
Thoracic 12
Lumbar 5
Sacral 5
"work 8-5 take a break at 12 and start over @ 5"
What do T1-T12 innervate
upper extremities
(C5-8 also innervate upper extremities)
What do L1-4 innervate
what do L4-5 innervate
thigh, leg & foot
what do S1-S3 innervate
thigh, leg & foot
(same as L4-5)
What do S2-4 innervate
Where is the EW nucleus located
upper midbrain
Which EOMs would not be affected by an EW lesion?
SO (innervated by CN4 in the inferior colliculus)
LR (located in the pons)
Which CN is located in the inferior colliculus of the midbrain
CN 4
which part of the midbrain proved the parasympathetic innervation of the iris
EW nucleus
which CNs are located in the pons
CN 5-8
which part of the brainstem controls respiration and sleep
which part of the midbrain contains the pyramids and medial lemniscus
what makes up the forebrain
diencephalon and cerebral hemispheres
what makes up the diencephalon
what makes p the epithalamus
pineal gland
what is the fxn of the thalamus
relays sensory inpt to cortex and incldes nuclei for voluntary motor movements
what is the fxn of the subthalamus
comm. with the basal ganglia to help control m. movement
what part of the brain regulated body temp. eating, and bleep behavior
what part of the brain is involved in fine motor mov't, posture, and balance
what is the fxn of the pyramidal motor pathway
voluntary mov'ts
what forms the internal capsl of the forebrain
pyramidal motor axons
lesion above the medulla will have ipsilateral or contralateral motor effects
pyramidal fibers decussate @ the lower medulla
where in the occipital lobe is the visual cortex located
calcarine fissure
the lateral LGN consist of fibers from which part of the VF (vis. field)
upper VF
the medial LGN consist of fibers from which part of the VF
lower VF
fibers from the upper (sup.) VF are located in what part of the LGN
lateral LGN
fibers from the inferior VF are located in what part of the LGN
medial LGN
where is meyer's loop located?
temporal lobe
meyer's loop carries info. from what part of the VF
superior VF
which part of the brain receives the densest portion of info. for the central VF
visual cortex located in the occipital lobe
(striate cortex)
(Area 17)
where is the first place along the visual pathway where we see binocular cells