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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
4 major tissue types
epithelial
nervous
conective
muscle
3 types of lipids prevalent in the plasma membrane
phospholipids
glycolipids
cholesterol (found ONLY in eukaryotic cells)
where does mRNA and rRNA transcription occur
nucleus
which cells in our body are anuclear?
RBCs
which part of the nucleus is responsible for the production of rRNA
nucleolus
which organelle is essential for tranlation?
ribosome
what is the fxn of free floating ribosomes?
used for cell growth
what is the fxn of bound ribosomes
produce proteins to be released by exocytosis
bound to the ER
fxn of smooth ER in hepatocytes
detox of lipid soluble drugs
where in the cell are proteins modified to form either a secretory granule or a lysosome
golgi apparatus
what ocular finding is characteristic of Tay Sach's Dz
cherry red macula
found in 90% of cases
what is the powerhouse of the cell
mitochrondria
what is the inheritance of mitochondrial DNA
maternal inheritance
(comes from the mother)
what makes up the cytoskeleton of the cell
microfilaments
microtubules
intermediate filaments
flagella and cilia are made of?
microtubules
which type of jxn wraps around the entire cell?
zonula occludens
which type of jxn represents a "spot weld"
desmosomes
what connects the basal cell layer to the underlying basement membrane?
hemidesmosomes
why do recurrent corneal erosions occur
poor adhesion between the basement membrane and the underlying tisse
what type of epithelium lines the respiratory tract
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
where is transitional epithelium located?
bladder
what type of glands are ductless?
endocrine
List 4 endocrine glands
pancreas
thyroid
adrenal gland
pituitary gland
what is an example of an unicellular exocrine gland?
goblet cell
produce the mucin layer of the tear film
methods of gland excretion
holocrine
apocrine
merocrine (most common)
* what is the embryonic origin of connective tissue?
* mesenchyme
what are plasma cells?
mature B cells that produce antibodies
what are macrophages in the liver called
kupffer cells
what are the different fibers of connective tissue?
collagen
elastic
reticular
what is the structural component of collagen
glycine always makes up 1/3 of the collagen
what is the only non-sulfated GAG
hyaluronic acid
types of specialized connective tissue:
blood
bone
cartilage
fat
what is the noncellular portion of blood
plasma
what is the lifespan of a RBC
120 days
what is the most abundant cell in the blood
RBC
list the WBCs most common to least common
neutrophil
leukocyte
moncyte
eosinophil
basophil
"Never Let Monkey Eat Bananas"
Which WBC is assoc with inflammation secondary to allergies
basophils
which WBC is assoc. with parasitic infections and allergies
eosinophils
when are neutrophils elevated
bacterial infection
what is the largest WBC
monocyte
"monster"
what is the term for a monocyte that has moved into the tissues
macrophage
what causes an increase in lymphocytes
viral infection
where do T cells come from and where do they mature
come from bone marrow
mature in thymus
where do B cells come from and where do they mature
come from and mature in the bone marrow
what cells are platelets derived from?
megakaryocyte
what is the fxn of osteoclasts?
phagocytize bone
what is the fxn of osteoblast?
build bone
what affect does parathyroid hormone have on blood calcium levels
increase blood calcium levels
stimulate osteoclasts
what is the embryonic orgin of muscle
mesenchyme from mesoderm
which bands shorten during muscle contraction?
H
I
Z
what is the functional unit of the muscle
sarcomere
main fxn of sarcolasmic reticulum in skeletal m.
store and release calcium
where are intercalated discs located?
only in the heart
characteristics of smooth muscle
involuntary
non-striated
types of neurons
unipolar
~ found in dorsal root
ganglion
bipolar (retina)
multipolar (most common)
propogation of nerve impulse
orthograde (cell body to axon ) "PRP"

retrograde (axon to cell body) "tumor back of the eye forward"
what produces myelin in the PNS
Schwann cells
what produces myelin in the CNS
oligodendrocytes
connective tissue coverings
endoneurium
perineurium
epineurium
layers of the epidermis
stratum corneum (outer layer)
stratum lucidum
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum (squamous cell CA)
stratum basal (basal cell CA)
an increase in the number of melanocytes causes ______
malignant melanoma
what type of nerve endings mediate pain?
nocioreceptors
(found on cornea)
found on cornea
blood flow thru the body
inf. vena cava → R atrium → tricuspid valve → RV → semilunar valve → pulmonary a. → lung → pulm. v. → LA → mitral valve (biscupid) → LV → semilunar valve → aorta
what is the only artery in the body that carries deoxygenated blood
pulmonary artery
only vein in the body that carries oxygenated blood
pulmonary vein
3 main types of capillaries
continuous capillaries (non-fenestrated)
fenestrated
discontinuous capillaries (don't exist in the eye)
what type of capillary is not found in the eye
discontinuous capillaries
most predominant layer of an artery
tunica media
what happens to the thymus after puberty?
size and fxn decrease
where in the lung is there no hyaline cartilage
bronchioles
where is the first location of gas exchange in the lungs
respiratory bronchioles
what type of cells in the alveoli are responsible for gas exchange?
Type 1 pneumocytes
which cells produce surfactant
Type II pneumocytes
which system causes bronchodilation
sympathetic
which system causes bronchoconstriction
parasympathetic
4 layers of the digestive sys.
mucosa
submucosa
muscularis externa
adventitia
what innervates the submucosa of the GI tract?
Meissner's plexus
what cells produce HCl and intrinsic factor?
parietal cells
what cells produce pepsinogen
chief/peptic cells
fxn of the large intestine
water absorption
lubrication of feces
what makes up the portal triad?
hepatic artery
portal vein
bile duct
where is bile stored?
gall bladder
where is bile produced
liver
which part of the pancreas produces the main digestive enzymes
exocrine pancreas
what does the endocrine pancreas produce
insulin
glucagon
somatostatin
what part of the adrenal gland produce epinephrine and norepinephrine
chromaffin
3 zones of the adrenal cortex
Glomerulosa
fasciculata
reticularis
"Go fast Reggie"
what part of the adrenal cortex produces aldosterone
glomerulusa
what part of the adrenal cortex produces cortisol
fasciculata
what part of the adrenal cortex produces androgen
reticularis