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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
what is the first heart sound
contraction of the ventricles(systole)
which portion of the EKG is created by contraction of the ventricles
Q-T
what us diastole
relaxation of the ventricles
what creates the 2nd heart sound
closing of aortic and pulmonary valves
what creates T-R on the EKG
diastole
(relaxation of the ventricles)
how many heart sounds are there
4
what makes heart sound S1
closing of tricuspid and mitral valve
what makes heart sound S2
closing of aortic and pulmonary valves
which node is the pacemaker of the heart
SA node
which node self-generates action potentials
SA node
where in the heart are fast myocardial action potentials not located
SA node
AV node
what causes contraction of the heart
ventricular action potential
inward current of positive ions cause (depolarization or repolarization)
depolarization (line moves up on the graph)
what does outward movement of positive ions caise
hyperpolarization (line moves down on the graph)
which action potentials do not have Na+ channels
slow myocardial action potentials (pacemaker action potentials)
SA & AV node
what does vasiconstriction do to tot. peripheral resistance
increase
what type if pressure is dependent on protein content
oncotic pressure
what us hydrostatic pressure
fluid pressure generated from the heart
3 wyas to increase BP thru neural regulation
ADH
aldosterone
angiotensin II
"BP will increase if you ever need the use if AAA"
what is the norm. ejection fraction
50% or greater
EF = SV/EDV
5 factors that increase stroke vol. and contractility
increase catecholamines
increased intracellular Ca+
decreased extracellular Na+
digitalis
sympathetic stimulation
5 factors that decrease stroke vol. and contractility
beta blockers
heart failure
loss of myocardium
acidosis
hypoxia
how does angiotensin II increase BP
constrict afferent arteriole
where is ADH stored
post. pituitary
where in the kidney does ADH fxn
DCT and CD
what happens to osmolality as blood vol. increases
osmolality decreases
inversely proportional
what organ produces & excretes erythropoietin
kidney
bllod flow thru the kidney
renal artery -> interlobar-> arcuate -> interlobar -> afferent arterioles
types of nephrons
cortical nephrons
juxtamedullary
factors that favor increased GFR
increase in renal blood flow
increased mean arterial pressure
efferent arteriolar cinstruction
where in the kidney are all of the glucose & amino acids along w/ most of the bicarb., Na+ & water reabsorbed
PCT
workhorse of the nephron
from which part of the loop of henle is water reabsorbed
descending loop
ALOH is impermeable to water
from which part of the LOH dos NaCl leave
ALOH
which portions of the nephron are permeable to water
PCT
DLOH
where does furisemide work
ALOH
where on the nephron does PTH work
EDCT
where do ADH and aldosterone work
late DCT
which cells produce and release renin
juxtogloerular cells
what makes the DCT and CD permeable to water
ADH
aldosterone
how will drinking large amts. of water, caffeine or alcoohol affect ADH levels
decrease ADH levels
what is the endocrine sys.
hormones released @ one site have a specific effect on tissues in another part of the body
3 types of hormones
amino acids (epi)
steroids (estrogen)
proteins & peptides
2 types of hypethalamic hormones
releaseing hormones
(-) hormones
ant. pituitary hormones
ACTH
TSH
GH
FSH
LH
which hormone has a diabetogenic effect
GH
which hormone (-) GH
somatistatin
what does a surge in LH hormone cause
ovulation
which hormones promote gestation
progestins
which hormone stimulates growth of the endometrium
estrogen
which hormone allows milk production
prolactin
post. pit hormones
ADH
oxytocin
which hormone is responsible for milk ejection
oxytocin
3 cell types in the isets of langerhan
alpha (secrete glucagon)
beta (secrete insulin)
delta (secrete somatostatin)
what is the fxn of glucagon
stimulates glycogenilysis (breakdown of glycogen for energy)