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196 Cards in this Set

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Principal Bacteria associated with refractory periodontitis 4개
Por repeatedly Baught Panasonic. Inc Cam = Porphylo. Gingivalis , Bacteroides forsythus ,PI, Campy recuts
Principal bact. Associated with RPP
PEPsi Causes fucking Erosions
:Porphylomonas gingivalis , Eubacterium , PI , Campy retus , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Eikenella corrodons
Aggressive Periodontitis - Generalized / Localized 각각의 원인균 2개씩
General = P.I / E.C (eikenella corrodons) Local=A-Cap (A.a + Capnocytophaga ochraceus)
Juvenile Diabetes Periodontis 원인균
A-cap
ANUG 원인균 4개
Fucking Selena did Spiral sex with Pretrelli = Fusobacterium spp, Selenamonas spp, Intermediate-sized Spirochtes ,Prevotella intermedia
mycolic acid biosynthesis를 방해하는 항생제는?
Isoniazid
mycolic acid 를 cell wall에 가지는 Bact 2개
Mycobacterium / Actinomycetes
Transformation시 recipient cell로 uptake되는 DNA는 ( ds or ss) 이고, uptake는 ( ) factor가 있어야 일어난다.
ds, competence
Encapsulated bacteria mn
Some Killere Have Pretty Nice Capsules. Strep. Pneumoniae , Klebsiella , Haemophilus , *Pseudomonas , Nisseria Meningitidis , *Crytococcus
Toxins that increase cAMP mn
Cholera , Anthrax , M=E.coli , Pertussis
Anaerobe Bacteria mn
acaerobe라고 외우자.악박ㅋ
An ABC = Actinomyces , Bacteroides , Clostridium
Aerobe Bacteria mn
Nagging Pest Must Breathe.
*Nocardia , Pseudomonas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Bacillus anthracis
positive strand RNA virus mn
a RETRO TOGA party with FLAVourful PICO and CORONAs.
naked RNA virus mn
The RNA viurs get naked when they want to
RE-PLI-C-A te. Reo , Plica , Calici, Astro
circular RNA virus mn
All RNA virus have linear RNA except BAD ones. Bunya Arena Delta

Delta - Hepa D
lysogenic conversion하는 bact.?
Corynebacterium diphteria / lysogenic bacterium = temperate bacteriophage를 가지고 있는 얘
Enterobacteria phage ( ) is a phage that infects E.coli bact.
T4
Plasmids 는 linear or circular / ss or ds ?
circular / ds
EBV의 usual site for latency?
B-lymphocyte
VZV의 usual site for latency
cranial and thoracic sensory ganglion
DNA non-Env. Virus 3개
PAP = Parvo , Adeno, papilloma * HPV 16,18 암을 일으킨다.
Most viral antigen of diagnostic value are ( )
protein
influenza virus & retro virus replicate in Nuc / Cytoplasm?
in Nucleus
coagulase negative Staph. ?
S. saprophyticus , epidermis
Staph.는 ( aerobe/ anaerobe/ Fan) 이고, catalase (+)이고 oxidase ( ) 이다. 대부분의 strain은 coagulase (+) 이다.
fan 이고 oxidase (-)

Staph strain 대부분은 cat + and cog + and oxid -

S.epidermis와 saprophyticus만 cog -
Parvo virus가 일으키는 질환은?
Erythema infectiosum(slapped cheek syndrome)
Hyaluronidase is an enzyme produced by bact. Which bact below do not produce this? A. strep. B. Staph. C. Clostridium D.Neisseria
D. Neisseria

fibrinolysin --> SS (strep, staph) (streptokinase , staphylokinase)
Hyaluronic acid = ( ) + N-acetyl ( )
glucuronic acid + N-acetyl Glucosamine
Pseudomonas. =
a. 호흡형태 와 예외 strain
b. 약한 antibiotics
c.toxin 중 immune system을 교란하는 것은?
D. 형광빛을 띠는 strain은?
E. shape
f. Gram
a. all aerobe but P.aeruginosa는 Fan
b. gentamicin(Pc에 선천적으로 저항)
c. exoenzyme S(미인계를쓴다.) exotoxin A--> inhibit protein synthesis
d. aeruginosa
e.curved rod
f.G(-)
which two bact. Have been found to be the principal bact. Associated with ANUG?

A. strep. Sanguis B.Prevotella intermedia C.Spirochtes(intermediate size) D. Actionomyces israeli E.Porphylomonas gingivalis
PI / Spirochtes
Fan. G(-) rod 3개
F--->P
PEV . Pasteurella , Enterobacteriaceae , Vibrionaceae
Anaerobe G(-) rod 3개
Bad Poor Father
B--->P--->F

Bacteroides , Prevotella, Fusobacterim
Regular non-spore G(-) rod 1개
Lactobacillus
irregular non-spore G(+) rod 2개
Corynebacterium , Antinomyces
-->aerobe
Actinomycetes 3개?
nocardia , rhodococcus , streptomyces
Herpes virus
I. Herpes virus 5종류? II.Herpes중 vesicular rash를 일으키는 3개는?
III. Herpes virus envelop is from?
I. simplex I , II EBV , CMV , VZV

II. Simplex I,II and VZV

III nuclear memb.( nuclear memb에서 envelop을 bud하여 얻는 유일한 virus)
rubella virus is a member of the togavirus family and is an (Env or Non-E) virus composed of an icosahedral nucleocapsid and a ( ) stranded ,( + or - ) stranded RNA genome
Enveloped *Single stranded Positive stranded

RNA virus is commonly single strand
Congenital rubella syndrome of heart?
PDA
-pulmonary artery through Aorta
( ) lymphadenophthy is characteristic in Rubella
Posterior auricular
lecithinase를 만드는 bact.?
Clostrium perfrigens.
IL-1 를 만드는 cell은 ?
MQ
Growth of blood cell precursor의 효과를 내는 IL은?
IL-3
IL-2 의 source와 effect는?
Activatied T cell (TH1) / proliferation of TH1
T cell , B cell growth , antibody production , APC stimulation하는 IL은?
IL-1

TBA production
APC stimul
G(+) cocci에도 잘 듣고 , Anaerobe에서도 잘듣는 항생제는
Clindamycin
Bact. DNA를 공격하는 것은? 2개 A. Pc B. Quinolone c. Erythromycin d. Chloraphenicol e. Metronidazole
B, E
Metabolic pathway를 방해하는 drug는?
Sulfa drug(Sulfonamides)
protein synthesis를 방해하는 agent는? 2개 A. Pc B. Quinolone c. Clindamycin d. Chloraphenicol e. Metronidazole
c,d(protein synthesis inhibitor - Tc, Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol

clindamycin and chloramphenicol both inhibit 50s head ribosome
Richkettsial ds 치료에 주로 쓰이는 항생제 2개는?
Tc + Chloramphenicol
Richkettsialpox 의 vector는? A. tick b. flea c. lice d. mite
mite
interstitial nephritis를 유발하기때문에 평소에는 잘 안쓰이나 penicillinase producing bacteria에 쓰이는 anti는?
Methicillin
ergosterol은 fungi의 cell wall 에 있는가 cell memb에 있는가?
cell memb
다음 중 conidia는 a. chlamydorespore b. zygospores. C. ascospores d basidiospores
chlamydorespore
pseudohypae라고도 불리는 spore는?
Blastospore
rhizopus와 mucor와 같은 mold에 의해 생기는 spore는 ?
sporangio-spore
AIDS 환자에서 자주 걸리는 fungal infection 4개 - Mucormycosis , Aspergillus , Candida , ( )
Cryptococcus neofromans
liver에서 대사되어서 epoxide가 된 후 DNA에 붙어서 transcription을 방해해서 hepatic carcinoma를 유발하는 toxin은?
aflatoxin
aspergillus 의 의한 질환 3개중 asthma attack을 일으키는것은
ABPA - allergic Broncho-Pulmonary Aspergillosis
aspergillus 의 의한 질환 3개중 lung에 국한된 것은?
Aspergillus
conidia중 coccidioides immitis 의 spore는?
Arthro-spore
Shy-Drager syndrome은?
Parkinson's ds와 비슷한 증상
multiple system atropy
protozoa에 cell wall이 있는가?
없다.
( ) is an infection of the large intestine caused by a (flagellated or non-flagellated) protozoan ( )
presents a Dysentery and liver abscess
Amebiasis
non-flagellated
Entamoeba histolytica
Bruton's agammaglobulinemia affect only (male or female) because it is sexlinked ds. Bacterial and Fungal infection inc.
this is caused by a mutaion in the B-cell protein ( )
male

tyroxine kinase
Vit B12 malabsorption also occurs with (Crohn or Gardner)ds.
Crohn's disease
Pins-and-needles sensation,especially in feet
is related which nutrient insufficiency.

a. iron
b. Vit B12
c. Vit C
d. Vit B1
e. Vit B2
Vit B1 (thiamine)
sore tongue and cracks at edge of mouth(cheilosis) is related which nutrient insufficiency.

a. iron
b. Vit B12
c. Vit C
d. Vit B1
e. Vit B2
e. Vit B2(riboflavin)
Anemia , Pins-and-needles sensation
is related which nutrient insufficiency.

a. iron
b. Calcium
c. Vit C
d. Vit B1
e. Vit B12
e Vit B12 * iron, Folic acid anemia에서는 pin and needle sensation없다.
다음의 malabsorption disorder중 sore tongue from vit B2 deficiency와 관련이 있는것은?

a. tropical sprue
b. celiac disease
c. whipple's ds
d. intestinal lymphangiectasia
tropical sprue
다음의 malabsorption disorder중 gluten 섭취와 관련이 있는 것은?
a. tropical sprue
b. celiac disease
c. whipple's ds
d. intestinal lymphangiectasia
celiac ds
다음의 malabsorption disorder중 intestine infection과 관련이 있는것은?

a. tropical sprue
b. celiac disease
c. whipple's ds
d. intestinal lymphangiectasia
whipple's ds
colon cancer 위험이 높은 syndrome은?
Gardner
colon polys with skull osteoma
다음 중 pigmentation을 보이는 것 2개는

a. Peutz-Jegher
b. Gardner
c. Turcot
d. Wilson's
PJ and Wilson

wilson's ds(hepatolenticular syndrome)

basal ganglia degeneration

Turcots syndrome
-polys with CNS tumors
Erythema muliforme의 systemic condition은?
Steven-Johnson's syndrome
acute asthma attack시 치료제는?
B2-agonist
Terbutaline , albuterol
RBC in urine 2개 고르시오

a. nephrotic syndrome
b. nephritic syndrome
c. pyelonephritis
d. renal infaction
nephritic and renal infarction

nephrotic --> protein in urine
WBC in urine

a. nephrotic syn.
b. nephritis syn
c. pyelonephritis
d. renal infaction
pyelonephritis
oval fat body가 urine에서 보이는 경우는?
proteinuria and lipidruia

proteinuria 시 고혈압, edema생긴다.
ALL 의 peak age는
ALL 4

네살
philadelphia chromosome이 주로발견되는 leukemia는?
CML
Down, EBV와 관련있는 leukemia는?
CML
emphysema 시 lung compliance는 inc or dec
increse
C=V/p 인데
lung의 elastic recoil능력이 떨어져서 Volume이 늘어나므로 compliance도 증가.
Emphysema의 obstruction은 mucus over-production에 의한 것이다. T or F
F
tissue change에 의한 것이다.
mucus production에 의한 obstruction은 asthma , chronic bronchitis
alpha-a antitrypsin이 없는 사람은 어떤 lung ds에 취약한가?
emphysema<---smoking
cetrilobar emphysema는 주로 smoking에 의한 것이고 ( )emphysema는 antiproteinase deficiency에 의한것이다.
panlobar
백인 호발, mucus와 sweat gland에 이상이 생기고, sodium channel에 영향을 주는 질환은
Cystic fibrosis
-->exocrine gland dysfunctions
retina 와 cerebellum에 hemangioma가 생기는 질환은?

1. Marfan
2. Gardner
3. Wilson's ds
4. von Hippel-Lindau ds
vHL
Familial hypercholesterolemia는 (lipoprotein lipase or LDL receptor)에 문제가 생기는 생긴것이다.
LDL receptor
smoking의 의한 질환
1.emphysema
2.chronic bronchitis

둘중 productive cough는?
precancerous는?
chronic bronchitis
->cor pulmonare가 생긴다.
--> submucosal gl. hyperplasia
--> bronchial smooth m. hypertrophy
Reid index?
pulmonary gland wall thickness/muscle wall thickness
49 yr old man has had increasing discomfort with abdominal enlargement for the past three yrs. On physical examination, the spleen can be felt below the left costal margin. An abdominal CT scan reveals massive splenomegaly. which of the following underlying conditions is he most likely to have?

a. Myelofibrosis
b. Sickle cell anemia
c. Portal hypertension
d. Infectious mononucleosis
Myelofibrosis
a clinical study is performed with subjects who are adults found to have anemia. Their clinical histories and laboratory findings are reveiwed. It is observed that ingestion of a drug preceded development of the anemia in some of the subjects, but not in others. Which of the following conditions is most likely to be found in persons without a history of drug ingestion?

a. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
b. Macrocystic anemia
c. Aplastic anemia
d. Microcystic anemia
microcystic anemia-- by iron deficiency.
sulfur granule이 특징적인 병은?
lumpy jaw라고도 불린다.
Actinomycosis
-branching filamentous bacteria , anaerobe
All of following statement concering botulisom are true except:

a. it is an uncommon, life-threatening poisoning caused by the toxins produced by the gram-positive,anaerobic bacillus clostridium botulinum

b.These extotoxin(neurotoxins) are the most potent poisons known and can severely damage nerves and muscles

c.It is caused by a toxin that hydrolyzes lecithin(lecithinase), thereby destroing nerve cells
d.It occurs with botulism food poisoning, wound botulism, and infant botulism
e.The foods most commonly contaminated are home-canned vegetables, cured pork and ham,smoked or raw fish, and honey or corn syrup
f.the mortality from botulism is about 25%; death is usually caused by repiratory failure during the 1st week of illness
c.
the most potent of the anaphylatoxins is :

a. C3a
b. C4a
c. C5a
C5a
--> Type I hypersensitivity
ACID mn는?
3a EAG ASS

anaphylaxis
atopy
asthma

Erythroblastosis fetalis
Autoimmunehemolytic anemia
Goodpasteur's ds

Arthus reaction
Serum sickness
SLE

C-contact dermatitis
T-TB
C-chronic Transplantation rejection
complement fixing antibody는?
(2개)
a. IgA
b. IgE
c. IgM
d. IgG
IgM and G
Complement activation is a feature of type ( ) hypersensitivity
III
the protein ( ) complexes with C3b and stabilizes alternate pathway C3 convertase that cleave C3
properdin
reticuloendothelial system 에 neutrophil이 들어가는가 ?
no
다음 lung cancer 중 smoking과 연관이 적은것은

a. epidermoid carcinoma
b. adenocarcinoma
c. small cell carcinoma
d. large cell carcinoma
b. adenocarcinoma
- TB와 관련
diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma와 관련이 있는 leukemia는?
CLL
*CML은 E(M)BV, philadelphia ch과 관련이 잇다.
Mycosis fungoides는 fungal infection이다.
false
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
T-lymphocyte기원 , skin에 영향을 주어서 안모변형을 초래
neoplastic cell circulate--> sezary syndrome이라고 한다.
malignant epithelial cell have an increased number of ( ) receptors.
laminin
- major component of basement membrane. cell adhesion, migration, growth, diffentiation에 관여
skin에 가장 흔한 tumor는 basal cell carcinoma이고 oral cavity에서 가장 흔한 것은 ( )이다.
SCC
basal cell carcinoma에서 nuclei의 palisade arrangement가 나타난다.
PSA 정상 수치는?
4 ng/ml
PSA-->bone으로 전이
( ) is a cutaneous disroder marked by hyperkeratosis and pigmentation of the axilla,neck,flexures, and anogenital region. More than half of the patients with this have cancer(GI carcinomas, particulary the stomach)
Acanthosis nigricans.
pilosebaceous origin의 SCC와 닮은 malignancy는?

a. Dermatofibromas
b. Seborrheic keratosis
c. Acrochordon
d. Keratoancathoma
e. Actinic keratosis
keratoacanthoma
APUDoma?
amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation tumor
hormone like substance release
Which of the following is a chracteristic of malignant neoplasms in which there is no differentiation to suggest a particular cell type>

a. Dysplasia
b. Anaplasia
c. Metaplasia
d. Desmoplasia
Anaplasia
다음중 osseous tumor인것은? 2개

a. Ewing's sarcoma
b. Fibrosarcoma
c. Malignant giant cell tumor
d. Chordoma
e. chondrosarcoma
malignant giant cell tumor
chondrosarcoma
chordoma?
noto-chord 기원의 암
constipation과 visual disturbance가 생긴다.
다음중 female에 잘생기는 것은?2개

a. osteogenic sarcoma
b. parosteal osteogenic sarcoma
c. chondrosarcoma
d. malignant giant cell tumor
parosteal osteogenic sarcoma
malignant giant cell tumor
malignant giant cell tumor 호발부위는?
knee
젊은 사람한테 잘 걸리는 것은?2개

a. osteogenic sarcoma
b. parosteal osteogenic sarcoma
c. chondrosarcoma
d. malignant giant cell tumor
osteogenic , giant cell tumor
rheumatic heart ds이 영향받는 valve 2개는?
mitral and aortic
EBV관련질환4개
Burkitt's lymphoma ; nasopharyngeal carcinoma ; hairyleukiplakia ; infectious mononucleosis ; * CMV에 의해서도 infectios mononucleosis걸릴 수 있다.
Eburnation of bone ; osteophyte formation은 어떤질환의 특징인가?

a.Gout
b.Rheumatoid arthritis
c.Osteoarthritis
d.Osteomyelitis
e.Lyme disease
osteoarthritis
50세 이상 여성에서 호발
immune complex are effectively cleared by the ( )
reticuloendothelial system
Type III hypersensitivity에서 histamine이 중요한 역할을 하는가?
no
Secondary hyperparathyrodism은 주로 무엇때문인가?
chronic renal ds로 인한 hypocalcemia
HyperPTH --> Ca up , P( ) , serum alkaline phosphatase( )
phosphate down
serum Alkaline phosphatase up
hyperparathyrodism시 central giant cell granuloma가 생기는가?
osteoporosis
central giant cell granuloma
metastatic calcification
이 같이 생긴다.
In which type of hypersensitivity reaction do the antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigens on the patient's own cell surface
type II

cytotoxic reaction

antibody reaction with antigen of cell
T3 , T4 중에 강한 것은?
T3

T4---> T3 in the peripheral ts
Lisch nodule 을 보이는 질환은?
NF-1
Hearing loss가 나타나는 NF type은?
NF-2
thrombus / thrombosis의 차이
thrombus 는 artery cell wall에 붙어있는 blood clot이고 thrombosis는 돌아다니는 것
thrombus중에 혈관을 완전히 막지 않는 것은?

a. Agonal thrombus
b. Mural thrombus
c. White thrombus
d. Red thrombus
e. Fibrin thrombus
fibrin thrombus
thrombus중에 MI와 관련된 것은?

a. Agonal thrombus
b. Mural thrombus
c. White thrombus
d. Red thrombus
e. Fibrin thrombus
mural
Constrictive pericarditis is an postinflammatory thickening and scarring of pericardium. It leads to diminished cardiac motion and the heart size is not increased. It is typically a complication of ( )
TB
Beck's triad
elevated CVP with neck vein distension, muffled heart sounds and pulsus paradoxus
( )aneurysm characteristically result in aortic rupture, most often into the pericardial sac, causing fatal cardiac tamponade
dissecting aneurysm
Hemophilia C에서 결핍 factor?
XI
Hemophilia 시 늘어나는 것은?

a. PTT
b. PT
c. Bleeding time
PTT
Hemophilia B에서 결핍 factor는?
IX
Paget's ds 환자는 osteosarcoma 걸릴 확율이 높다
True
Actinomycetes & nocardia
a. 둘중 aerobe는?
b. 둘중 sulfur granule을 가지는 것은?
a. nocardia
actinomycetes는 an-aerobe
actinomyces israelii
b. actinomycetes
Actinomyces & nocardia

a. acid-fast인 것은?
b. normal flora인 것은?
c. G(+)인 것은?
a. nocardia asteroides
b. actinomyces
c. both
Actinomycetes와 nocardia의 공통점 pus abscess를 만들고, fungus like bacteria, nocardia는 TB와 같이 mycoliac acid cell wall을 가진다.
read
Actinomycetes & nocardia
각각의 치료제는?
SNAP
sulfa for nocardia
Actinomycetes give Pc
Paramyxoviridae중에 hemeagglutinin , neuramidase가 없고 대신 fusion protein을 가지는 것은?
RSV-->소아에서 폐렴유발
RSV 치료제는
Ribavirin
Transduction
cell to cell transfer of DNA
Pox virus family
small pox + vaccinia virus +
( )
MCV
molluscum contagious virus
rebella virus causes ( )
Germal measles
*rubeola --> Mealses
retrovirus에서 reverse-transcriptase를 code하는 gene은?

a. env
b. pol
c. gag
pol
*gag->nucleoid protein code
Papovaviridae의 2 genera
papilloma virus
Polyomavirus
-둘다 oncogenic이다.
Think O
ds circular DNA
polyoma virus 2종류
BK,JC
JC는 immunecompromised pt에서 PML유발.(Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy)
Paramyxo / Orthomyxo 중 genome이 segmentation된 것은?
ortho
paramyxo의 genome은 not segmented
human antibiotics를 가지는 bacteria는
corynebacterium diphteria
inhibition of inhibitory interneuron?

tetani or butulinum
teteni
-GABA, Glycine 같은 inhibitory neurotransmitter release를 방해
Listeria monocytogenes 가 주로 감염시키는 사람은?
pregnant woman
CMI가 떨어져있는 3기에 주로 감염되고 본인보다 fetus에 주로 감염

Listeria는 MQ내에서 자란다. 즉 MQ가 부실한 사람에서 자람

LM-->Fan , G(+) rod
G(+) bacteria 6개는?
2 cocci + 4 rod
strep / staph

Bacillus / Clostridium
Corynebacterium / Listeria
G(-) cocci 는?
Neisseria 한개이다. only one
spirochtes는 G(+) or G(-)?
G(-)
Strep.pyogenes가 일으키는 질환은? mn있음
NIPPLESS

Necrotising fasciitis and myositis
Impetigo
Pharyngitis
*Pneumonia
Lymphangitis
Erysipelas and cellulitis
Scarlet fever/ Streptococcal TSS
staphylococcus aureus가 일으키는 질환? mn있음
SOFT PAINS:
Skin infections
Osteomyelitis
Food poisoning
Toxic shock syndrome
Pneumonia
Acute endocarditis
Infective arthritis
Necrotizing fasciitis
Sepsis
AIDS pathogens
The Major Pathogens Concerning Complete T-Cell Collapse

*MAI : TB like symptom but with GI problem

Toxoplasma gondii
M. avium intracellulare(MAI)
Pneumocystis carinii
Candida albicans
Cryptococcus neoformans
Tuberculosis
CMV
Cryptosporidium parvum
Il-( ) is for myeloid stimulation

Il-( ) is for lymphoid stimulation
Il-3 and Il-7
Strep. pyogenes virulence factor 는? mn있음
SMASHED
Streptolysins
M-protein
Anti-C5a peptidase
Streptokinase
Hyaluronidase
Exotoxin
DNase
volutin?
cytoplasmic granule 의 일종
metachromatic granules
ATP생산과 관련된 high energy reserve

Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Corynebacterium diphtheriae에 많다.
ts taken from an individual of the same species who is not genetically related to the recipient is called

a. xenograft
b. autograft
c. allograft
d. isograft
allograft
transverse mutation / transition mutation ?
transverse
- purine /pyrimidine 이 서로 바뀌는 것

transition
-purine 끼리 바뀌고, pyrimidine끼리 바뀌는 것
purine - pyrimidine 배열에는 변화없다.
steam autoclave flash cycle

270F at a pressure of ( )psi for a minimum of ( ) minute
270F 30psi 3min
unwrapped instrument
only alkaliphile bacteria
Strep. pneumoniae
opsonin 2개
C3a, Fc part of AB
다음 중 Staph. aureus 의 virulence factor는?

a. M protein
b. A protein
c. F protein
d. DNase B
Protein A

M and F protein --> for adherence in strep. pyognens

Streptodornase(DNase B) --> depolymerize DNA
renin sercretion is activated by ?

a. angiotensin
b. renal atrial blood pressure up
c. renal vein blood pressure down
d. sympathetic nerve activation
d. sympathetic nerve act.

renal aterial pressure down될 경우에도 renin분비된다.
angiotensin II

a. constrict resistance vessel
b. release aldosterone
c. release ADH
d. stimulates thirst center within brain
e. stimulate cardiac hypertrophy and vascular hypertrophy
f. facilitates NE release and inhibit uptake --> action time increase
read
swish and swallow 로 치료하는
C.albicans의 치료제 2개는?
Nystatin and Clotrimezole
50s ribosome을 block하는 antibiotics 3개는?
clindamycin -->colitis
chloramphenicol-->bone marrow
Macrolide계 (Anithromycin/Clarithromycin/Erythromycin)
cefaclor는 몇세대 cephalosporin인가?
2세대
Turner / klinefelter 각각의 유전자형은?
XO / XXY
plummer's ds 와 Grave's ds의 차이는?
grave는 20-40호발, exophtalmos 생기나, plummer는 노인에 호발, exophtalmos없다.
ADH는 hyppthalaumus의 ( ) nuclei에서 만들어진다.
suparoptic
leukemia중 가장 악성인 것과 가장 악성이 아닌것은?
AML--> most malignant

CLL--->least mal.
2개의 phase를 가지는 leukemia는
CML
esophageal varices를 일으키는 vein in esophagus?
superficial vein

superficial vein --> left gastric --> portal vein

*대부분의 esophagus blood는 --> esophageal vein-->azygos vein-->SVC (esophageal varice와 무관)
Kernicterus?
toxic bilirubin accumulation in brain and spinal cord
bacterial infection중 neutrophil depression이 일어나는 것은?
typhoid fever and brucellosis
crohn's ds granuloma의 특징은?
non-necrotizing
small molcecule,not antigenic by itself, that can react with antibodies is called ?
hapten
epitope?
antibody binding site on an antigen
A groups of compounds derived from unsaturated fatty acid which are extremely potent mediators of immediate hypersensitivity reactions and inflammation are called

a. neurotransmitter
b. leukotrienes
c. tratogens
d. bradykinins
leukotrienes
Hemosiderosis / Hemochromatosis
Hemosiderosis - Hemosiderin이 MQ에 쌓인것. yet no damage
Thalassemia major
Hemochromatosis - Bronzed ds. more extensive form of hemosiderosis
ts and organ damage
HBsAg means what?
live virus and infection
Anti HBsAg?
immune , no active ds
HBcAg
c-->chronicle

얼마나 infection이 있엇는지 알 수 있다.
HBeAg
e-->Ective

active ds. high infectious
Blastomycosis causes skin ulcer and bone lytic lesion.

T/F
true

histoplasm capsulatum, coccidioides immitis 는 대부분의 사람에서 증상이 없으나 Blastomycoses dermatitidis 는 lung, skin , bone에 증상이 나타난다.

last to get,, hardest to heal.
Circular DNA virus 2개는?
Papova and Hep B virus
Hep B vaccine is what type of vaccine?
recombinant vaccine
chromosome translocation?
non-homologous chromosome 사이에 일어나는 part swapping
Robertsonian translocation?
acrocentric chromosome fusion
-->down syndrome
Philadelphia chromosome is a result of

a. transverse mutaion
b. transition
c. reciprocal tranlocation
reciprocal translocation