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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the two general types of memory?
Declarative and non-declarative
What are the two types of declarative memory?
semanic and episodic
What is episodic memory?
Specific personal experience from a particular place and time. An event.
What is semantic memory - give 4 examples?
World knowledge, object knowledge, language knowledge, conceptual planning.
What is the main path associated with declarative memory.

Simple version?

More detailed version
Neocortical associated areas <=> parahippocampus <=> hypocampus

Neocortical associated areas <=> (Perirhnal cortex)/(Parahippocampus) <=> Entorhinal cortext <=> hippocampus
What are two types of non-declarative memory covered in class?

What portion of the brain is involved in each?
Procedural: skills (motor and cognitive). Located in the basal ganglia and cerebellum.

Classical conditioning: conditioned responses between two stimulii. Said to be involved with the skeletal muscle.
What are three primary characteristics of dense amnesia?
Retrograde and anterograde both observed in the subject.

Damage diffusely distributed across the brain?
Who was the famous patient that had dense amnesia?

What happened to him to cause this?

What was damaged?
KC

Hippocampus and surrounding areas were removed.

Damage to the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes.
What is amnesia?
Loss of declarative memory.
What are the two types of amnesia?

What is the basic loss with each type?
retrograde and anterograde.

Consolidation issue, encoding issue, respecitvely.
Damage to what broad areas can result in amnesia?
Hippocampal-diencephalic system
What are two of the areas of interest in the diencephalic system?
MTL (Medial Temporal Lobe)

Mammillary body
What two primary areas are located in the MTL system?
Hippocampal formation (allocortex)

Parahippocampal gyrus (neocortex)
What two areas are contained within the hippocampal formation?
hippocampus

dentate gyrus
What 3 areas are located in the parahippocampal gyrus?
Subicular cortex

Entorhinal cortex

Perirhinal cortex
What are four characteristics of global amnesia?

What area is often damaged?
common
anterograde
loss of encoding
A little retrograde (memories not yet consolidated)

Damage to diencephalic system, hippocampus, anterior thalamus, fornix.
What basically happens with encephalitis to damage the brain?

What two areas can be damaged?

What is the result?
Swelling of the brain

MTL, some lateral temporal lobe

Global amnesia
If a patient has global amnesia as a result of a stroke, what area of the brain is likely damaged?
MTL
What three insults to the brain can result in the loss of CA3 cells?

What is the result?
Anoxia, ischemia, chemical poisoning

A few CA3 cells lost => several memory issues
What is korsaholff's disease? What is often the scenrio which produces it? What areas are damaged in the brain? What is the behavior observed?
A thiamine defficiency.

An older man, no wife, decides to live off alcohol => thiamine (vitamin) deficiency.

Damage in the mammillary bodies and thalamus.

Anterograde memory issues and possible confabulation.
What is a DNMS test?
delayed non-match to stimulus.

The subject has to not pick the last choice picked.
If DNMS is used and damage is done to various areas of the brain, what would be expected for

sham operation?

Selective hippocampal + amygdala lesion?

Rhinal cortex damage?
Sham and HA damage: no impairment in DNMS test.

Rhinal cortex damage: significant impairment in the DNMS test for delays beyond short times.
What is one useful tool for studying brain activity in humans?
fMRI
Review the fMRI episoidal experiment discussed in class.
People asked to learn words that were shown on a screen.

They were later asked to describe the complete episode including details, in other words more than the word.

Left brain: High activity in parahippocampal gyrus (rhinal cortex)for remembered words but and slightly lower signal observed in the hippocampus.

There was a depression in the signal for correct known, correct rejected and missed words.

Parahippocampal activity observed to occur before hippocampus.

Similar activity seen in the right half but no statistical significance.
Describe two experiments to test rats for declarative memory lost. One is behavioral and the other is measured in the brain.
Sniff test: match breath of another rat to food. Leison to MTL (hippocampus and parahippocampus) resulted in impaired learning.

Single object versus array of objects shown to rat. cfos used to record location of activity.

Hippocampus key for episodal (relational) - array of novel objects.

Rhinal cortex key in processing information for novel individual objects.
The hippocampus may be needed for ___ kind of memory. The hippocampus is not needed for ___ type of memory
Relational (episodic and spatial)memories

Semantic memories
For non-declarative memory

What structures are not involved?

What structures are involved?

What is a condition that shows non-declarative memory is being used?

How is consciousness involved?
hippocampus or diencephalon structures.

Striatal learning system: caudate and putamen

No amnesia is involved

Tends to be non-conscious memories where declarative for conscious
What is the weather prediction task?

For what type of memory is it used?

What are two diseases studied with this and what were the outcomes?
Pick 1,2,or 3 cards of 4 and combine to "predict" the weather.

non-declarative

People with amnesia showed no impairment => non-declarative memory. People with Parkinson (substania nigria problem) or Huntington's (basal ganglia damage) were impaired in learning using this test.
What type of brain damage did HM have?

Give an example of something that could be taught to him.
hippocampus and surrounding area.

Mirror-tracing task. He was to trace the edges of a figure while looking at it in a mirror. He quickly learned it although he would say this is new to him.
For the mirror-tracing test, how well did Parkinson disease people do? Patients with cerebullar damage?
Patients with Parkinson (impaired basal ganglia function) showed slightly longer time to completion.

People with cerebellar damage showed considerably longer time to completion.
What is the serial reaction time test?
Patient was to press button corresponding to the number of the light that was lit. At first the lights were turned on in sequence then ramdonly.

Amensia patients (HM, Korsakoff's) showed preserved memory capability.

Basal Ganglia patients (Parkinson's/Huntington's) showed impaired ability.

Cerebellar damage patients showed preserved capability.