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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When the body is in the anatomical position, the thumbs point
laterally
A person lying on his/her back is in what position?
supine
The physical and chemical breakdown of the food we eat is called
digestion
The transfer of fluids across the plasma membrane of a cell from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration is a process known as
diffusion
Homeostasis is define as
self-regulated control of the body's internal environment
The portion of a cell containing all the genetic material important in the cell reporduction is called the
nucleus
Which of the following are the two most prominent mineral elements of bone?
phosphorous and calcium
The bones of the wrist are classified as which of the following bones
short
The appendicular skeleton is composed of the bones of the
upper and lower extremities
Study of body structures and the relation to one part to another
anatomy
The study of the processes and functions of the body tissue and organs. Study of how the body works.
physiology
Study of the development of the body from a fertalized egg, or ovum
embryology
Divides the body into right and left halves on its vertical axis.
median or midsagittal plane
This plane passes through the sagittal suture of the cranium; therefore, any plane parallel to it is called __________.
sagittal plane
Divide the body into anterior(front) and posterior(rear) sections.
Frontal planes or coronal planes
Divide the body into superior(upper) and inferior(lower) sections.
Horizontal or transverse plane
Standard body position. Assumed when the body stands erect with the arms hanging at the sides and the palms of the hands turned forward
anatomical position
Toward the front, or ventral(pertaining to the belly; abdomen), side of the body.
anterior or ventral
Toward the back, or rear, side of the body
posterior or dorsal
Near or toward the midline of the body
medial
Farther away from the midline of the body
lateral
Nearer the point of origin
proximal
Away from the point of origin
distal
Toward the lower end of the body
caudal
Lying position of the body on either side
lateral recumbent
The outward part of surface of a structure
peripheral
Involves the physical and chemical breakdown of the food we eat into its simplest forms
digestion
Is the process of absorption, storage, and use of these foods for body growth, maintenance, and repair.
metabolism
Is the body's self-regulated control of its internal environment. Allows the organism to maintain a state of constancy or equilibrium.
homeostasis
Viscid, jellylike substance, upon which depend all the vital functions of nutrition, secretion, growth, circulation, reproduction, excitability and movement of a cell.
protoplasm
Controls the exchange of materials between the cell and its environment by physical and chemical means.
plasma membrane
Gases and solids pass through the plasma membrane by a process known as ________.
diffusion
Is a small, dense, usually spherical body that controls the chemical reactions occurring in the cell.
nucleus
Substance contained in the nucleus
nucleoplasm
Genetic information for the cell is stored here.
nucleus
Every human cell contains ______ chromosomes
46
Is a gelatinous substance and is composed of all of the cell protoplasm
cytoplasm
Are groups of specialized cells similar in structure and function
tissues
Tissues are classified into 4 main groups:
epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous
The lining tissue of the body.
epithelium or epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissues that are composed of single layers of cells are called ________ while cells with many layers are said to be _________.
simple, stratified
3 categories of epithelial tissue:
columnar, squamous, and cuboidal
Nuclei are located at about the same level as the nuclei in their neighboring cells. Chief function of this epithelial tissue is the secretion of digestive fluids and the absorption of nutrients from digested foods.
columnar epithelial tissue
Thin platelike or scalelike cells forming a mosaic pattern. Is the main protective tissue of the body.
squamous epithelial tissue
Are cubical in shape and are found in the more highly specialized organs of the body, such as the ovary and the kidney. In the kidney, functions in the secretion and absorption of fluids.
cuboidal epithelial tissue
Supporting tissue of the various structures of the body. Most widespred tissue of the body and is highly vascular.
connective tissue
Consists of a meshwork of thin fibers that interlace in all directions, giving the tissue both elasticity and tensile strength. Its chief function is to bind parts of the body together. Found between muscles and as an outside covering for blood vessels and nerves.
areolar connective tissue
Is "fatty tissue." First appears star-shaped. Acts as a reservoir for energy-producing foods; helps to reduce body heat loss.
adipose connective tissue
Known as "bone tissue," is a dense fibrous connective tissue that forms tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and bones. Forms the supporting framework of the body.
osseous connective tissue
3 Predominant types of connective tissue
areolar, adipose, and osseous
3 Types of Muscle tissue
skeletal, smooth and cardiac
Is striated, or striped and is under the control of the individual's will.
skeletal or voluntary muscles
Are smooth, or nonstriated, and are not under the control of the individual's will. Is found in the walls of hollow organs, such as the stomach, intestines, blood vessels, and urinary bladder.
smooth or involuntary muscles
Are striated and are joined end to end, resulting in a complex network of interlocking cells. Are involuntary muscles and are located only in the heart.
cardiac muscle tissue
Is the most complex tissue in the body. It is the substance of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Reguires more oxygen and nutrients than any other body tissue.
nerve tissue
The basic cell of the nerve tissue is the ________.
neuron
Two or more kinds of tissues groupted together and performing specialized functions constitute an ______.
organ
Organs are grouped together to form ____________.
systems.
The skeleton, the bony framework of the body, is composed of ________ bones.
206
Is the study of the structure of bone.
osteology
Bone is made up of inorganic mineral _____ and an organic substance called _______.
salt, ossein
Bones consists of a hard outer shell called __________ and an inner spongy, porous portion, called __________.
compact bone, cancellous tissue
In the center of the bone is the ___________, which contains __________.
medullary canal, marrow
Two types of marrow:
red, yellow
Is one of the manufacturing centers of red blood cells and is found in the articular ends of long bones and in cancellous tissue.
red marrow
At the ends of the long bones is a smooth, glossy tissue that forms the joint surfaces called _________.
articular cartilage
The thin outer membrane surrounding the bone is called the ___________.
periosteum
Is the pain center of the bone?
periosteum
4 Classifications of bones
long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones
2 main divisions of the human skeleton
axial and appendicular skeleton
________ skeleton consists of the skull, the vertebral column and the thorax.
axial
The skull consists of ____ bones.
28
All skull bones are joined together and fixed in one position. The seams where they join are known as _________.
sutures
3 Predominant types of connective tissue
areolar, adipose, and osseous
3 Types of Muscle tissue
skeletal, smooth and cardiac
Is striated, or striped and is under the control of the individual's will.
skeletal or voluntary muscles
Are smooth, or nonstriated, and are not under the control of the individual's will. Is found in the walls of hollow organs, such as the stomach, intestines, blood vessels, and urinary bladder.
smooth or involuntary muscles
Are striated and are joined end to end, resulting in a complex network of interlocking cells. Are involuntary muscles and are located only in the heart.
cardiac muscle tissue
The spinal column is divided into 5 regions:
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx
The first set of ribs are attached to the ____________.
manubrium
The first seven pairs of ribs are called _________.
true ribs
The remaining five pairs of ribs are called __________.
false ribs
The last two rib pairs, also known as ___________.
floating ribs
The ___________, located at the inferior aspect of the sternum, serves as a landmark in the administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
xiphoid process
The __________ commonly called the collar bone, lies nearly horizontally above the first rib and is shaped like a flat letter S.
clavicle
The _______ is a triangular bone that lies in the upper part of the back on both sides, between the second and seventh ribs, forming the posterior portion of the pectoral girdle.
scapula
Is the longest bone of the upper extremity and is often called the arm bone.
humerus
The ___________ bone, commmonly known as the hip, is a large, irregularly shaped bone.
innominate
Innominate or hip bone is composed of three parts:
ilium,ischium,pubic
Ilium,ischium and pubis in children are separate bones, but in adults they are firmly united to form a cuplike structure called _________.
acetabulum
Is the longest bone in the body.
femur or thigh bone
Two processes called the ________ and _______ are at the proximal end for the attachment of muscles.
greater and lesser trochanters
Is a small oval-shaped bone overlying the knee joint.
patella
Is the larger of the two leg bones and lies at the medial side.
tibia, or shin bone
The smaller of the two leg bones, is located on the lateral side of the leg, parallel to the tibia.
fibula
Joint classifications are:
Immovable, slightly movable, freely movable
The smaller of the two leg bones, is located on the lateral side of the leg, parallel to the tibia.
fibula
Joint classifications are:
Immovable, slightly movable, freely movable
Ilium,ischium and pubis in children are separate bones, but in adults they are firmly united to form a cuplike structure called _________.
acetabulum
Is the longest bone in the body.
femur or thigh bone
Two processes called the ________ and _______ are at the proximal end for the attachment of muscles.
greater and lesser trochanters
Is a small oval-shaped bone overlying the knee joint.
patella
Is the larger of the two leg bones and lies at the medial side.
tibia, or shin bone
The __________ commonly called the collar bone, lies nearly horizontally above the first rib and is shaped like a flat letter S.
clavicle
The _______ is a triangular bone that lies in the upper part of the back on both sides, between the second and seventh ribs, forming the posterior portion of the pectoral girdle.
scapula
Is the longest bone of the upper extremity and is often called the arm bone.
humerus
The ___________ bone, commmonly known as the hip, is a large, irregularly shaped bone.
innominate
Innominate or hip bone is composed of three parts:
ilium,ischium,pubic