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137 Cards in this Set

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Define: Pharmacology
The science that deals with the origin, nature, chemistry, effects, and uses of drugs.
Define: Pharmacognosy:
The branch of pharmacology that deals with biological, biochemical, and economic features of natual drugs and their consituents.
Define: Pharmacy
The branch of phrmacology that deals with the preparation, dispensing, and proper use of drugs.
Define: Posology
The science of dosages.
Define: Pharmacodynamics
The study of durg action on the living organisms.
Define: Pharmacotherapeutic
The study of the uses of drugs in the treatment of disease.
Define: Toxicology
The study of poisons, their actions, their detection, and the treatment of the condition produced by them.
Define: Therapeutics
The science of treating disease by any method that will relieve pain, cure disease, or prolong life.
Define: Therapeutic dose
The normal adult dose, the usual dose or average dose.

CALCULATED ON AN AVERAGE 24 Y/O WHO WEIGHS 150LBS.
What is the most common factor that influences the amount of durg to be given?
Age
Young's Rule
age in years
_______________x adult= child
age in year +12 dose dose
What has a more direct bearing on dose than any other factor?
Weight
What would you use to calculate pediatric doses?
Clark's Rule
What would you use to calculate drug doses based on weight?
Clark's rule
What would you use to calculate drug doses based on age?
Young's rule
Clark's Rule
weight in lbs
_____________ x adult = child
150 dose dose
Who usually requires larger doses of medication? Males or Females?
Males
What are the 6 methods of administering drugs?
-Oral
- Parenteral (injection)
- Rectal
- Vaginal
- Inhalation
- Topical
How is Buccal drugs administered? And why?
By placing the medication between the cheek and gum.
- It is quickly absorbed directly into the blood stream.
Parenteral drug administration can be given in what 5 ways?
- Subcutaneous
- Intradermal
- Intravenous
- Intratehcal or Intraspinal
To inject medication just below the skin:
Subcutaneous
To inject medication within the dermis layer:
Intradermal
To inject medication in the muscle.
Intramuscular
To inject medication into the vein.
Intravenous
To inject medication into the subarachnoid space of the spinal column.
Intrathecal or intraspinal
Introducing medications through the respiratory system in the form of gas, vapor, or powder.
Inhalation
What are 3 types of Inhalation drugs?
- Varporization
- Gas inhalation
- Neulization
Vaporization porcess?
The drug is changed from liquid or solid into a gas vapor by heat.
What type of medication is administered by GAS INHALATION?
Anesthesia
When a drug is converted into a fine spray by use of compressed gas, this known as?
Nebulization
What are 2 purposes of topical medications?
Local effect & Systemic effect.
Topical solution LOCAL EFFECT:
To relieve itching, burning or other skin conditions without being absorbed into bloodstream.
Topical solution SYSTEMIC EFFECT:
Absorbed through the skin into the blood stream
RECTAL medications are administered in what situations?
When there is danger of vomittiong or when the patient is unconscious, uncooperative, or mentally incapable.
Why are VAGINAL medications administered?
To produce a local effect.
Define the tern DRUG:
Any chemical substance that has an effect on living tissue but is not used as a food.
Name the 3 types of Drug classifications:
-General
-Chemical
-Therapeutic(Pharmacological)
How is GENERAL DRUG classifications grouped:
According to their source (Animal, vegetable, or mineral in origin)
How is CHEMICAL DRUG classifications grouped:
By chemical characteristics.
How is THERAPEUTIC (PHARMACOLOGICAL) classifications grouped:
By their actions on the body.
(some drugs have more than 1 actions)
What are the 3 names of drugs?
- Chemical name
- Generic name
- Trade name
The CHEMICAL NAME of a drug:
Relates to chemical and molecular structures.
The GENERIC NAME of a drug:
Is derived from the chemical name. It is the more common name of the drug.
the TRADE NAME of a drug:
Is the proprietary name given by the manufactureer or band name.
What are ASTRINGENTS?
Drugs that cause shrinkage of the skin and mucouse membranes. Used mainly to stop seepage, weeping, or discharge from mucous membranes.
What are EMOLLIENTS:
Bland or fatty substances that may be applied to the skin to make it more pliable and soft. Available as ointments, crams or lotions.
These are used for symptomatic treatment of the common colds or bronchitis:
Expectorants & Antitussives.
What are EXPECTORANTS:
Accurately known as bronchomucotropic agents assist in the removal of scretions or exudates from trachea, bronchi or lungs.
What are ANITUSSIVES:
Agents that inhibit or supress the act of coughing.
What are NASAL DECONGESTANTS?
Reduces congestion and the swelling of mucous membranes. Used for temprotary relief of nasal congestion from sinusitis and to promote nasal / sinus drainage.
What are ANTIHISTAMINES used for?
To counteract the physical symptoms that histamines cause.
What are HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTRO ANTOGANISTS?
It blocks histamines that cause an increase of gastric acid secretion in the stomach.
It is effective in peventing complications of petic ulder disease and alleviationg symptoms of this disease.
What are ANTACIDS used for?
To counteract hyperacidity in the stomach.

It interferes witht he body's ability to use many drugs.
*** Oral drugs nomrally should not be taken within 2 hours of taking an antacid***
What are ANTISEPTICS, DISINFECTANTS & GERMICIDES used for?
The prevention of infections by destroying bacteria or prventing their growth.
How does ANTISEPTIC drugs work?
Supress the growth of microorganisms.
How does GERMICIDE drugs work?
Kill susceptible organisms.
What DISINFECTANT used for?
To disinfect inanimate objects and are primarily germicides in their actions.
What are SULFONAMIDES?
It is synthetically produced and is effective agaist both gram-positive and gram-negative organismss?
What drug is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms?
SULFONAMIDES
This is derived from a number of molds found on breads and fruits.
PENICILLINS (comes from Penicillium molds)
One of the most effective and least toxic of the antimicrobial agents:
PENICILLINS
An antimicrobial agent of fungal origin that is related to penicillin.
CEPHALOSPORINS
This is the 1st broad-spectrum antibiotic, used to treat mixed infections.
TETRACYCLINES
TETRACYCLINES should not be taken with?
Milk or milk products, antacids or iron preparation; they combine with metal ions to form nonabsorbable compounds.`
This drug is effective against MOST gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
AMINOGYCOSIDES
This is most often used in patients who are sensative to penicillin.
MACROLIDES
Effective against gram-positive cocci, neisseria, hemophilus, and mycrobacteria.
MACROLIDES
How do ANTIFUNGALS work?
It inhibits or suppresses the growth systems of fungi, dermatophytes, or candida.
MOSTLY TOPICAL
Agents that are distructive to parasites?
ANTIPARASITICS
Drugs that facilitate the passage and elimination of feces from the colon and rectum. Indicated to treat simple constipation and to clean the intestine of any irritant or toxic substances (catharisis).
LAXATIVES
What are LAXATIVES classified as?
Irritant, bulk, emollient, or stool softeners.
Drugs that are effective in comabating diarrhea.
ANTIDIARRHEALS
Agents that increase the rate of unrine formation:
DIURETICS
Treatment of hypertenstion and edematous conditon, such as congestive heart failure and acute pulmonary edema.
DIURETICS
Relieves pain without producing unconsciousness or imparing mental capacities.
NON-NARCOTIC AGENTS
Relieves or reduces fevers.
ANTIPYRETICS
Counteracts or supressses inflammation or the inflammatory process.
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
Stimulates the activity of various portions of the central nervous system.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANTS
Indications for using CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANTS:
Narcolepsy, hyperkinesis and ADD.
Contraindications for not using CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULATNS:
Cardio vascular disease, agitated states, glaucomas or history of drug use.
How do CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANTS work?
Ranges in depressive action from mild sedation to deep coma, differing mainly in rapiditiy, degree, and duration of action.
***MANY ARE CONTROLLED MEDICATIONS***
May cause respiratory depression:
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANTS.
This comprises of a widely used group of CNS depressants:
BARBITURATES
What are BARTITURATES used for?
Mainly as sedative-hypnotics, anticonvulsants, anesthetics, for short anesthesia and may be in combination with analgesics to enhance their analgesic effect. ***HABIT FORMING***
Major use is for antiperistltic activity, particular in diarrhea:
OPIUM & OPIUM ALKALOIDS
Two primary groups of PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS:
-Tranquilizers
-Mood modifiers
Three classifications of PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS:
- Major tranquilizers
- Minor tranquilizers
- Mood modifiers
Used in connetion with treatment of muscle spasms, can produce muscular relaxation during surgical anesthesia.
SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXANTS
Affects the action of the cirulatory system. Most of these agents are highly specialized.
CARDIO VASCULAR AGENTS
Produces constricdton of the blood vessels iwth consequent rise in blood pressure.
VASOCONSTRICTORS
This agent delays or prevents bood coagulation:
ANTICOAGULANTS
Unrelated organic substances taht occur in many foods and are necessary for the normal metabolic functioning of the body. May be water or fat soluable.
VITAMINS
Fat soluable VITAMINS:
- A
- D
- E
- K
GENERAL ANESTHETICS:
Usually gas or vapor administered by inhalation
LOCAL ANESTHETICS:
Produce loss of sensation to pain in a specific area or locality of the body, without loss of consciousness or mental capacity.
Drugs that produce a rhythmic contraction of the uterus. Their action is selective for the uterus, although other muscles are affected.
OXYTOCICS
BIOLOGICAL AGENTS:
Prepared from living organisms or their products.
May be used in the treatment of disease or act in a diagnostic capacity.
How should BIOLOGICAL AGENTS be stored?
In a cool, dry and pregerable dark place.
How should Yellow fever vaccine be maintained?
In a frozen state until prepared for use.
A sterile solution of antitoxic substance obtained from the blood serum or plasma of a healthy horse immunized against diphteria toxin.
DIPTHERIA ANTITOXIN
A sterile solution of antitoxic substances that are usually obtained from the blood serum or plasma of a healthy horse that has been immunized against tetanus toxin or toxoid.
TETANUS ANTITOXIN
A sterile solution of the growth of the tetanus bacillus, clostridum tetani, which has been treated with formaldehyde.
TETANUS TOXOID
A sterile suspension of the percipitate obtained by treating the mixture of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis vaccine with alum and combining in such proportions as to ensure an inmmunizing close of each in the total dosage as listed on the label
ALUM PRECIPITAED DIPHTHERIA & TETANUS TOXOIDS & PERTUSSIS VACCINES COMBINDED (DPT)
A suspension of killed cholera vibro comma, in a suitable diluent, usually normal saline.
CHOLERA VACCINE
Name the 2 types of POLIOVIRUS VACCINE:
- INACTIVE POLIOVIRUS VACCINE (IPV)
- ORAL POLIO VIRUS (OPV)
POLIOVIRUS VACCINE by shot that is recommended in the US today:
INACTIVE POLIOVIRUS VACCINE (IPV)

***MUST BE STORED BETWEEN 2*C & 8*C (24*F & 46*F) ***
POLIOVIRUS VACCINE that consists of drops that are swallowed. This is better at keeping the disease from spreading:
ORAL POLIOVIRUS VACCINE (OPV)

***MUST BE STORED IN THE FREEZER COMPARTMENT***
YELLOW FEVER VACCINE must be stored:
At or be 0*C until rehydration is effected with sterile sodium chloride inj. USP.
Sterile suspension of killed plague bacilli in an isotonic solution:
PLAGUE VACCINE
Prepared from the allantoic fluid of incubated fertile hen eggs.
INFLUENZA VIRUS VACCINE
Prepared from calf lymph, purified:
DRIED SMALL POX VACCINCE
ANTHRAX VACCINE is a:
Cell-free filtrate vaccine (using dead as opposed to live bacteria)
ANTHRAX VACCINE should be stored:
In a refrigerator temp. between 2*C and 8*C. IT MUST NOT BE FROZEN.
The ANTHRAX VACCINE series consists of:
-3 subcutaneous injections given 2 weeks apart
-Followed by 3 additional subcuatneous injections given at 6, 12, & 18 months.
-Annual booster injections of the vaccine are required to maintain immunity.
Define METROLOGY:
The arithemticd of pharmacy, is the science of weights and measures and its application to drugs, their dosage, prepartaion compounding and dispensing.
The official system of weights and measure used by the Navy Pharmacy Depts. for weighing and calculating pharmaceutical prepartaions:
METRIC SYSTEM
The basic unit of weight is:
GRAM (g)
The basic unit of volume is:
LITER (l)
The basic linear unit is:
METER (m)
The basic guide to pharmacy operations:
NAVMED P-117
Name the 2 standardized forms used for prescripstions:
- DOD PRESCRIPTION
- POLYPRESCRISTION
DD FORM 1289
DOD PRESCRIPTION (OUT PATIENT PRESCRIPTIONS)
NAVMED 6710/6
POLYPRESCRIPTION
Name the 4 parts of a prescription:
- SUPERSCRIPTION
- INSCRIPTION
- SUBSCIRPTION
- SIGNA
SUPERSCRIPTION:
"RX" means "take" or "take them" "I want this patient to have the following medication."
INSCRIPTION:
Lists the names and quantities of the indredients to be used (important)
SUBSCRIPTION:
Gives directions to the compounder.
SIGNA:
Gives directions for the patient.
Controlled substances have how many schedules?
5 schedules
Controlled substance SCHEDULE I:
Have high abuse potential and no accepted medial use.
Heroin, marijuana, & LSD are classified in what Controlled substance schedule?
Controlled substance SCHEDULE I
Controlled substance SCHEDULE II:
High abuse potential and severe psychological and/or physical dependence liability.
***Never ordered with refills and filled within 7 days of the date originally written**
Narcotics, amphetamines, and barbiturates are classified in what Controlled substance schedule:
Controlled substance SCHEDULE II
Controlled substance SCHEDULE III:
Less abuse potiential and moderate dependance liability.
***Must be filled within 30 days and can be refilled 5x***
Nonbarbiturates, sedatives, non-amphetamine stimulants are classifice in what Controlled substance schedule:
Controlled substance SCHEDULE III
Controlled substance SCHEDULE IV:
Less potential abuse, limited dependance liability.
***Must be filled within 30 days and can be refilled 5x***
Controlled substance SCHEDULE V:
Limited abuse potential primarily antitussives or antidiarrheals.