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57 Cards in this Set

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a mass of metal cast into a convenient shape for storage or transportation before further processing
ingot
a piece of metal ready to be drawn, pressed, or machined into a finishe object
blank
a bar of steel reduced from an ingot to dimensions suitable for further roling
bloom
a narrow, generally square bar of steel, forged or hot-rolled from an ingot or bloom
billet
a malleable, ductile, magnetic, silver-white metallic element from which steel is made
iron
any of various iron-based alloys having a carbon content less than that of cast iron and mor than that of wrought iron, and having qualities of strength, hardness and elasticity varying according to composition and heat treatment
steel
the gradual deterioration of metal by chemical action, as when exposed to weather, moisture, or other corroding agents
corrosion
to coat a metal, especially aluminum or magnesium, with a hard, non-corrosive film by electrolytic or chemical action
anodize
to coat or plate a metal surface with a compoud of chromium (chromeplate)
chrome
to coat metal, especially iron or steel, with zinc
galvanize
steel that is hot rolled or cold formed in a variety of standard shapes and fabricated for use as load-bearing members or elements
structural steel
a lustrous, low melting, blush-white metallic element that is malleable and ductile at ordingary temperatures and used in plating and in making alloys and soft solders
tin
a broad ridge or pair of ridges projecting at a right angle from the edge of a structural shape in order to strengthen or stiffen it
flange
an integral part of a beam that forms a flat, rigid connection between two broader, parallel parts, as the flanges of a structural shape
web
holding together or uniting two or more parts or members, as by clamping with a mechanical fastener, by bonding with an adhesive, or by welding or soldering
fastening
a straight, slender piece of metal having one end pointed at the other enlarged and flattened for hammering into wood or other building materials as a fastener
nail
a metal fastener having a tabpered, helically threaded shank and slotted head, designed to be drieven into wood by turning as with a screwdriver
screw
a threaded metal pin or rod usually having a head at one end, designed to be inserted through holds in assembled parts and secured by a mating nut
bolt
work done at a site in preparation for a construction project, as excavation, sheeting, shoring, and grading
sitework
the digging and removal or earth from its natural position, or the cavity resulting from such removal
excavation
a rigid, relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support axial, compressive loads applied at the member ends
column
a rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements
beam
a curved structure for spanning an opening, designed to support a vertical load primarily by axial compression
arch
an arched structure of slone or reinforces concrete, forming a ceiling or roof over a hall, room or other wholly or partially enclosed space
vault
a vaulted structure having a circular plan and usually the form or a portion of a sphere, so constructed as to exert an equal thrust in all directions
dome
the gradual subsiding of a structure as the soil beneath its foundation consolidates under loading
settlement
the part of a foundation bearing directly upon the supporting soil, set below the frost line and enlarged to distribute their loads over a greater area
footing
to raise an existing grade with earth, stone, or other material, or the quantitiy of material used in building up the level on an area
fill
the cutting, filling, and shaping or earth in preparation for finish grading
rough grading
the precise grading of an area after rough grading to prepare for paving, seeding or planting
fine grading
an excavating operation in which the excavated material is moved to another location and used as fill
cut and fill
the ground elevation at any specific point on a construction site, especially where the ground meets the foundation of a building
grade
the elevation of the original ground surface before excavation or grading begins
existing grade
the elevation of drives, walks, lawns or other impreved surfaces after completion or construction or grading operations
finish grade
designed and constructed to support and transmit applied gravity and lateral loads safely to the ground without exceeding the allowable stresses in its members, consisting of the columns, beams, load-bearing walls, foundation
structural system
the shell or envelope of a building, consisting of the roof, exterior walls, windows, and doors
enclosure system
water supply, sweage disposal, heating, ventilating, air conditioning, electrical system, vertical transportation, fire fighting system
mechanical system
the vertical extension of a building or other construction above the foundation
superstructure
the exterior framework or walls and roof of a building
shell
the underlying structure forming the foundation of a building
substructure
a room or space directly under the roof of a building
attic
an area in a building having a clearance less than human height, but accessible by crawling, especially such a space below the first floor that is enclosed by foundation walls
crawl space
a room or set of rooms, for the storage of food, fuel or the like, wholly or partly underground and usually beaneath a building
cellar
a usable living space withing a sloping roof, usually having dormer windows for lighting
half story
a continuous supporting surface extending horizontaly throughout a building, having a number of rooms and constituting one level in the structure
floor
a low or partial stor between tow main stories of a building, especially one that project as a balcony and forms a compostion with the story beneath it
mezzanine
a story of a building that is wholly or partly below ground level
basement
an upright, relatively slender shaft or structure, usually of brick or stone, used as a building support of standing alone as a monument
pillar
a stiff vertical support, a wood column in timber framing
post
the extent of space between two supports of a structure
span
the distance between the inner faces of the supports of a span
clear span
wholly or partly below grade, require a continuous foundation wall to hold back the surrounding earth and support the exterior walls and columns of the superstructure above
basement
enclosed by a continuous foundation wall or piers to provide space under a first floor for the integration of and access to mechanical, electrical and plumbing installations
crawl spaces
supported directly by the earth and thickened to carry wall and coulmn loads; form an economical foundation and floor system for one and two story structures in climates where little or no ground frost occurs
concrete slabs-on-grade
structured in a grid form to elevate the superstructure above the surface of the ground
piers
used when stable soil of adequate bearing capacity occurs relatively near the ground surface; they are placed directly below the lowest part of a substructure and transfer building loads directly to the supporting soild by vertical pressure
shallow foundations
used when the soil under a foundation is unstable or of inadequate bearing capacity; they extend down through the unsuitable soil to transfer the building loads to a more appropriate bearing stratum of rock or dense sands and gravels well below the superstructure
deep foundations