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48 Cards in this Set

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What is evolution?
To the way in which living things gradually change in response to factors such as food availability, genetic mutation, population mixing, geological alterations, and shifts in climate.
What is taxonomy?
The classification of plants and animals according to a detailed, scientific system of organization.
Who is the father of Taxonomy?
Carolus Linnaeus
Who are Georges-Lous Leclerc, and Comte de Buffon?
Perhaps the first modern biologists to develop the concept of change in living things, openly rejecting the ideas of Linnaeus and others who believed that life-forms were fixed and fitted into permanent time slots.
What are Vestigial Organs?
Small and/or imperfectly developed organs that have no apparent use. EX. Appendix
What did Georges Cuvier help devise?
Throught the use of his groundbreaking work in paleontology, he devised the theory of catastrophism to explain why some animals became extinct.
James Hutton came up with what theory?
Uniformatism, this theory argued that geological changes occur at a slower and relatively uniform rate.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck developed what theory?
The use/disuse theory.
EX. Giraffe's long neck.
Charles Darwin is recognized as what?
The father of modern evolutionary theory.
What two reasons is Charles Darwin recognized as the Father of modern evolutionary theory?
1.) He gathered an overwhelming amount of evidence and datat to support his theory.
2.) He was able to expand the theory through his development of the concept of natural selection
What is natural selection?
A process in nature where such traits that are necessary for a species' survival and reproductive success could be concentrated or accumulated over generations.
Name Darwins 1st Major premis for the underlying theory of evolution.
1.) There is significant overproduction of young in each generation of species- many more that the ecosystem for that species can support in terms of demand for food, water, shelter, mates etc.
Name Darwins 2nd Major premis for the underlying theory of evolution.
2.) Variations exist within this excessive population of young, and many of these variations are inheritable.
Name Darwins 3rd Major premis for the underlying theory of evolution.
3.) There is competition between the young members of each species such that those individuals possessing variations that are better adapted for a particular environment will tend to reproduce with one another and pass those variations on to their offspring
Define Neo-Darwinism
recognized that natural selection acts on the genetic variations within individual populations, and it also holds that the main source of these variations seems to be mutation. Neo-Darwinism contends that evolution is an extremely slow process.
What is punctuated equilibrium?
The theory maintains that in many species, as evidenced by the paleontological record, evolution did not progress at a constant rate. Instead, it occasionally experienced periods of rapid change over perhaps several thousand years and then went back to a relatively constant rate for perhaps the next several million years
What is Microevolution?
is generally defined as comparatively minor evolutionary changes.
What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle?
It states that allele frequencies and genotypic ratios would actually remain constant from one generation to another in populations that sexually reproduce if certain equilibrium conditions existed
Name the characteristics necessary for microevolution equilibrium are:
1.) Mutation do not occur
2.) There is no net movement of individuals into or out of the population
3.) All offspring have the same chances for survival.
4.) The populations is so big that there is no probability of alterations in allele frequencies.
Define gene pool
The total of all the genotypes in a population.
What is genetic drift?
The random fluctuation in
What is gene flow?
is an alteration in allele frequencies due to the movement of individuals both in and out of the population.
Natural selection typically takes 3 forms:
Stabilizing selection
Directional selection
Disruptive selection
What is the result of stabilizing selection?
The most common phenotypes in a population are favored. As a result, the alleles that produce less common phenotypes are gradually reduced and eventually eliminated.
What is the result of Directional selection?
One phenotype extreme is favored over the opposite extreme so that the average phenotype in the population slowly moves toward the favored end of the spectrum.
What is the result of Disruptive selection?
The extremes at both end of the phenotypic spectrum are favored, while the intermediate forms are selected against. As a result, the population evolves into a number of subgroups
What is macroevolution?
is the evolution of groups of organisms above the species level.
What is speciation?
The process by which new species evolve from existing species.
Define Species
is a group of individuals who possess nearly identical anatomy and can share a common gene pool.
Define Allopatric speciation
involves the separation of smaller populations from the original, larger population due to geographical barriers.
What is Sympatric speciation?
involves the formation of new species within the presence of the larger population.
What is Anagenesis/Phyletic change?
A single species gradually changes so that all of its descendants are radically different from their ancestors.
What is Cladogenesis?
Involves the branching of lineages such that one species may develop into two or more species.
What is Adaptive radiation
Is the development of many new species from a common ancestor of a certain original species. Employs both Anagenesis and Cladogenesis.
Define Extinction
is a major outcome in the evolutionary scheme because as environments, climates, food and water supplies, predators, and other factors change, some species are simply unfit for the new situations and therefore die off or are eaten by more fit individuals from other species.
Name the categories in taxonomy

Kings Play Croquet Outside For Gay Sories.
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
What is a Kingdom?
At the broadest level, living things can be broken down into separate kingdoms based on their number and type of cells and their metabolic mechanisms.
Name the 5 Kingdoms

Monkeys Play Football Primarily (in) Autumn
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Protista
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Animalia
What does the Kingdom Monera include?
Single celled Prokaryotes
Autotrophs (self-sufficient)
Heterotrophs (parasitic)
* This kingdom consists largely of BACTERIA.
What does the Kingdom Protistia include?
Wide variety of single-celled Euraryotes, such as amobeas.
Some Autotrophs(self-sufficient)
Many others Heterotrophs (parasitic)
What does the Kingdom Fungi include?
Made up of multicellular heterotrophs (parasitic) that obtain their food through extracellular digestion and subsequent absorption.
*Common Fungi include mushrooms and most varieties of mold.
What does the Kingdom Plantae include?
is composed of multicellular autotrophs (self-sufficient) that rely on photosynthesis. This category includes seaweed and land-dwelling plants.
What does the Kingdom Animalia include?
consist of an incredibly divers number of multicellular heterotrophs (parasitic) that dwell on land, in the air, and in the oceans.
Which is the oldest Kingdom?
Monerans were the earlies form of life, and the gave rise to protists, some of which in turn separately evolved in 3 distinct branches: Plant, Animals and Fungi.
What are the Categories of Humans?
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Homo
Species: Sapiens
The scientific name for Humans is?
Homo sapiens
This two name system is called
Binomial system of nomenclature
What are the rules for the binomial system?
All organisms are given a two-word Latin name.
Genus Capitalized EX: Homo
Species lower case EX sapiens
Home sapiens