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49 Cards in this Set

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Define Chemistry
is the science concerned with the composition and properties of substances as well as interaction in which these substances play a part.
Solids consist of
atoms or molecules that are highly attracted to one another, more so than those in liquids and gases.
Crystalline solids
consist of atoms that are arranged in repeated and definite geometric patterns.
Amorphous soldis
do not possess atoms arranged in repeated and definite geometric patterns.
Gases consist of
atoms or molecules with the weakest attraction of any of the three states of matter.
When the temperature is increased to a level known as the ________ __________, the element will turn from a solid into a liquid.
melting point
When the temperature is raised to the ________ _________ the element will go from the liquid state to the gas state.
boiling point
Some elements can pass directly from the solid to the gaseous state and vice versa through a process called
sublimation
Define antimatter
Does not naturally exist on earth, for if antimatter and ordinary matter came into contact, they would annihilate each other and turn into energy.
The ___________ is the simplest form of matter that cannot be reduced by chemical means.
element
The basic structural unit of the element is the _______
atom
Define atomic number
the number of protons in their nucleus.
An _________ is an atom of a particular element that differs from other atoms of the same element in terms of the number of neutrons in its nucleus.
isotope
The __________ __________ of an element is the combined weight of the protons and neutrons in its nucleus plus the weight of the electrons spinning around the nucleus
atomic weight.
The basic standard of measurement for atomic weight is the _______ ________ ______ also known as __ __ __
Atomic mass unit
AMU
Atoms of two or more elements can be combined to form a
compound
The basic unit of the compound is the
molecule
________ (liquid) can be formed bye the combination of two or molecules.
mixtures
Name those mixtures that are too closely combined to be distinguished by sight.
Homogeneous mixtures
Name those mixtures with components that are coarse enough to be distinguished by the naked eye.
Heterogeneous mixtures
Define mole
is the weight in grams equal to the numerical molecular or atomic weight of a compound or element in atomic mass units.
Define molar solution
is a solution that consists of one mole of an element or compound dissolved in one liter of water.
Define organic compounds
are those that contain carbon as one of their base elements.
Inorganic compounds
Those compounds that do not contain carbon in their base element.s
Define acid
is a compound that produces positively charged hydrogen ions when it dissociates in water.
Define base
is and inorganic compound that produces negatively charged hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
Define salt
is a compound that is produced bye the reaction of an acid and base when the two are mixed in a water solution.
Define pH
Potential hydrogen
Describe Acid as in relation to the pH scale
Increased # of Hydrogen ions
Decrease in the value of pH
Describe Base as in relation to the pH scale.
Decreased # of Hydrogen ions
Increase in the value of pH
Define electrovalence
is the process by which electrons are transferred from one atom to another in order to from ions.
The _________ ________ of an atom is the number of electrons that would have to be added to or taken from the ion of that atom in order to render it electrically neutral.
oxidation number
________ occurs when an atom or molecule reacts with other atoms or molecules by removing electrons from the.
Oxidation
_________ takes place when an atom or molecule reacts with other atoms or molecules by adding electrons to them.
Reduction
Define hydrolysis
is the reaction of a chemical compound with water.
When heat is produced in a reaction, that reaction is said to be
exothermic
When heat is lost or consumed in a reaction, that reaction is said to be
endothermic
Define the Hess Law of Constant Heat Summation
As long as the same product results, however, the sum of the heat released or consumed by each reaction path is the same, regardless of the number and kinds of reaction upon each path.
Define solution
is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
In solutions, the substance being dissolved is called the
solute
The substance that does the dissolving is known as the
solvent
A majority of solutions contain water as their solvent, such mixtures are known as
Aqueous solutions (aq)
Define Henry's law
This law states that at a constant temperature, the weight of a gas dissolved in a given weight of liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of that gas at the surface of the liquid.
Define electrolyte
is any acidic, basic, or salt solution that will conduct electricity because of the charges on its ions.
Define polar solvent
Atoms of this molecule may be arranged such that the centers of positive and negative charge are located at different points on the molecule.
Define dipolar arrangement
one end of the molecule is positive and the other is negative (polar solvent)
Define nonpolar solvent
is one in which the solvent molecules are symmetrical and have their centers of positive and negative charge in the same location
A solution is _____________ is one in which, at a given temperature, the number of molecules or ions of solute dissolving into solution from the solid state is exactly the same as the number going back into the solid state from solution.
Equilibrium
___________ is a measure of the amount of solute in a given volume of solution.
Concentration