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### 62 Cards in this Set

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 What is matter? Matter is anything that possesses weight or mass and occupies space What is energy? Energy is the ability to do work. What is the relationship between matter & energy? The two are related by Einsteins equation E=mc2, where E is energy, M is the mass of a given body of matter, and c is the speed of light. Why doesn't the general theory of relativity rely upon the absolute frame of reference? The bodies in the universe are not in fixed positions; rather, they are in a state of constant motion. Accordingly, there is no fixed point in the universe from which to measure any physical quantity. Therefore, the general theory of relativity does not use absolute frame of reference because no such frame exists. Name Newton's first law of motion First law of motion states that if an object is at rest or moving at a constant speed along a straight path, it will continue to do so until acted upon by an outside force. (Law of Inertia) Name Newton's second law of motion. Second law of motion states that force is equal to the product of mass and acceleration (F=ma). Name Newton's third law of motion. Third law of motion states that for every action, there is and equal but opposite reaction. Define Frame of reference some beginning point in time and space against which to measure any change in that property Cartesian coordinate system Most common frame of reference. The beginning point for the cartesian system is the origin, or the point at which depth, width, and height all equal zero. General theory of relativity Albert Einstein 1915, assumes that all observations are relative to the position of the observer. Law of gravitation Sir Isaac Newton states that earth exerts greater force on large objects such that these bodies fall with the same rate of acceleration as their lighter counterparts. Equivalence principle states that two bodies, on more massive than the other, will fall at the same rates along identical paths. Special theory of relativity Albert Einstein 1905 the speed of light is the same in all directions and in all reference frames. Speed of light Constant in all directions 299,792.46km/s NOTHING can move faster than the speed of light. E=MC2 E= energy M= mass C= speed of light. Define the electromagnetic spectrum Electricity magnetism light Range from Radio waves to Gamma rays. All these waves travel at the speed of light. Kinematics The study of motion Dynamics The branch of physics that examines the relationship between forces and moving objects. Define Velocity is the rate at which a particle changes its position over time. v=d/t Define Instantaneous Velocity Objects speed at a particular moment. v=2(pie)r/t Define Relative Velocity the speed of an object as related to that of another object. Define Acceleration The rate at which velocity changes over time a=d/t2 Define Instantaneous Acceleration is the acceleration of an object at a particular point in time Define Energy is the ability to produce change Define Work Is expended energy Potential energy energy stored by an object as a result of its position. Kinetic energy is the energy released by a object when it is in motion K=1/2mv2 Momentum Actual movement of a body Power can be calculated bye the following equation: P = W/t Power is expressed in terms of horsepower Horespower is equal to 550ft lb/sec or apporximately 746 watts. Define the principle of the conservation of energy This rule states that although energy may be transformed from one kind to another, it cannot be created or destroyed, for the total amount of energy in the universe is constant. Zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if bodies A and B are in thermal equilibrium with a third body C, then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other. First law of thermodynamics (relates to work with a closed system) If a closed system possesses a certain internal energy in a state of initial equilibrium, it will attain a state of final equilibrium in which its final internal energy equal its initial internal energy. Second law of thermodynamics That heat cannot be conducted through a medium or an engine unless there is a higher temperature at the starting point or source of the heat than there is at the ending point or sink of that heat. Define entropy as a measure of the unavailability of thermal energy for conversion to mechanical work in a thermodynamic system. In other words, entropy is a measure of the disorder of s system. Fluid mechanics is The study of liquids and gases and the forces that act upon them Define Pascal's principle If an additional outside pressure is applied to the fluid, it is transmitted equally in all directions with the fluid. Wave is a disturbance that travels through a medium and thereby transports energy from one location to another. Longitudinal wave is a wave in which the particles move in the same direction as the wave itself. Transverse wave is a wave in which the particles move perpendicular to the wave itself' in other words, the waves oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the direction of travel Electormagnetic wave can move through a vaccum Mechanical wave requires a medium with a relatively high number of particles. Velocity is the speed at which a wave travels through a medium Wavelength is the distance between the peaks of a wave in the general direction of motion, regardless of whether the wave is oscillating in a longitudinal or transverse mode. Amplitude is the maxium displacement of a wave. Period is the time it takes for a wave to make one complete cycle. Define diffraction (wave) When waves pass through an opening or around the edge of some barrier. Refection (wave) in which a wave collides with a surface and then travels away from that surface at an angle equal to the one at which it first struck the object. Refraction (wave) in which wave are bent as they travel through a medium. Human hearing is sensitive to sound waves that range from 20 to 20,000 cycle per second, this is known at the audible range Lower than the audible range is known as infrasonic Hight than the audible range is known as ultrasonic Electrical charge is measured in terms of a unit known as coulomb (C) Fundamental charge is the amt of charge carried by a single charge particle. Principle of conservation of charge expresses the fact that nature seeks to maintain the same electrical charge in various reactions Electrical field is the space around a charge object that is affected by that object. Electric current is the motion of electrons as the move from an area of positive charge to one of negative charge. Resistance is the opposition of a body or substance to the passage of an electric current. Electrical potential is the amt of work that makes an electric current move through a conductor. Electromotive force (emf) is the greatest difference in electric potential between two points that can be generated by a source of electric current. Back emf is voltage that tends to counteract or neutralize the voltage that is already flowing through a conductor. Explain the principle of the conservation of charge The principle of conservation of charge states that nature seeks to maintain the same electrical charge in various reactions.