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159 Cards in this Set

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What is vertical distance?
The difference in elevation between two points from the datum plane.
What is horizontal distance?
The difference in distance between two points; or a line between two points parallel to horizon.
What are two kinds of linear determination?
Vertical and horizontal
What are ways to measure horizontal distance?
pacing, measuring tapes, in america we use 100-ft tape or surveyor's tape. or Gunter's chain
What is gunter's chain and what is it used for?
it is 66 feet long, 10 square chains=1 acre, each link is .66 chains or 7.92 inches, used for surveying
What is the true north-south line called?
the meridian
What is it called if a reference line is indicated by a magnetic compass needle?
magnetic meridian
What are azimuths?
are measured clockwise from due north, beginning at 0 azimuth. They have values from 0 to 3600
What are bearings?
are horizontal angles that are referenced to one of the quadrants of the compass (i.e., NE, SE, SW or NW). These quadrants contain 900 each (totaling to 360).
What are two types of compasses used?
hand compass...staff compass
What is magnetic declination?
The amount and direction by which the magnetic needle is off the true meridian
What is the agonic line?
where true north is, magnetic north
What is mensuration?
the act of measuring; geometry applied to the computation of lengths, areas, or volumes from given dimensions or angles
What is forest mensuration?
deals with the determination of the volume of logs, trees, stands, and with the study of yield
What is forest biometrics?
the application of measurement methods to the
solution of biological problems of forest resources.
What are the four scales of measurement?
ratio, interval, nominal, ordinal
What is nominal?
used for numbering objects for identification, ex. stand 3, crew 4
What is ordinal?
degree, position, quality, 1st, 2nd, 3rd
What is an interval?
a series of gradations marked off at uniform intervals from reference point of fixed magnitude. The origin is chosen arbitrarily, with no absolute reference point.
ex. farenheit 33 degrees, humidity 45%
What is a ratio?
interval scale with an absolute zero
ex. 6.3 inches, 3 cubic cm, weights 777.3 grams
What are base units and derived units?
base units are measurements for length, mass and time (hours, feet, meters)(fundamental)
derived units are units derived from base units ex. square ft. cubic cm.)
What is accurate?
success in measuring the true value of a quantity;
an estimator equal to or very close to the true value.
What is precision?
refers to the clustering of sample values about their
own mean repeatability; similiar to the variance or
standard deviation in statistical terms
How can you determine if something is accurate or precise?
standard dev. and variance give the precision, closeness to the true value is accuracy
What is a bias?
systematic distortion that results in a CONSISTENT ERROR
What is a variable?
a property with respect to which individuals in a
sample differ in some specific way (length, height,
weight, age, sex, etc.).
What is a qualitative variable?
variable that cannot be measured
but must be expressed qualitatively (dead or alive,
species, sex)
What is a quantative variable?
variable that is measured or
counted and expressed numerically (number of
trees, height, diameter)
What is a continuous variable?
results from a measurement.
Theoretically can assume an infinite number of
values between any two fixed points (height, weight)
What is a discrete variable?
results from a count.
Usually expressed as a whole number or
positive integer. No intermediate values possible
(number of trees, number of sample plots)
What is central tendency?
there is a tendency for observed values (observations)
to cluster themselves about some interior value.
If two modes exist what is the data considered?
multi-modal
What is considered the best measure of central tendency?
the mean
What is the standard errror of the mean?
a measure of the variation among
sample means. It may be regarded as a
standard deviation among the means of
samples of a fixed size n,
it is s/square root of 'n'
What are statistics?
The study of making sense of data.
What is a population?
set of measurements of interest to the collector
What is a sample?
set of measurements selected from the population
What is surveying?
is the art of making field measurements that are used to determine the lengths and directions of lines on the earth's surface.
what is area?
is the two-dimensional extent of a plane or curved surface. it is a measurement derived from the fundamental measurement of length. The square of any unit of length yields the corresponding unit of area.
How many feet does one acre equal?
43560 feet
How much does one hectare equal?
2.47 acres, 10000 meters squared
What is metes and bounds survey?
is a” survey of an an irregular shaped tract of land not conforming to the rectangular systems of surveys.”
What article declared this a rectangular
coordinate system for survey of public land owned by the
US government was initiated.
Articles of Confederation (1785),
How were townships divided?
by 36 mile squares=640 x 36
What is a row of townships extending north to south icalled? and a row east to west is called?
a range, a tier
What lines come away from the principal meridian and the baseline?
the principal meridian is standard parallels, the baseline is guide meridians
What is a principal meridian?
north-south line through the initial point.
What are guide meridians?
true meridians extended north from the baseline or standard parallels at intervals of 24 miles east and west from the Principal Meridian.
What are standard parallels?
lines of latitude parallel to the base line established at 24 mile intervals north and south from the initial point. It is a true parallel of latitude.
What is a representative fraction?
specifies the number of ground units of distance represented by one unit of map distance
What are the components of a GPS system?
satellite segment, control segment, and user segment
What does the control segment of the GPS system do?
determines if there are clock changes or general malfunctions, 6 ground locations
What is the user component of the GPS system?
The receiver is a specialized radio receiver, designed to listen to radio signals broadcast from satellites, and calculate a position based on those signals.
What is triangulation?
a process by which the location of a radio transmitter can be determined by measuring either the radial distance, or the direction, of the received signal from two or three different points
What does a GPS determine and how many satellites are need to do this?
the latitude, longitude and elevation coordinates of a location, 4 satellites
What is Geographic Information systems (GIS)?
Powerful computer database programs that can input, store, manipulate, and analyze spatially referenced data

Different types of data are stored as layers
What are the individual tree parameters, stand parameters and landscape qualities?
diameter, volume, height..
basal area, density, site quality
area, forest health and condition
How do we measure diameter?
dbh (diameter at breast height), 4.5 ft. from ground, horizontal length perpindicular to the main stem
Which dendrometer is the most accurage and which is the most precise?
the d-tape
What are four ways of measuring diameter, dendrometers?
calipers, d-tape, biltmore stick and ocular estimation
What is the total height of a tree?
the linear distance from ground level to the upper tip of the tree crown
What is bole height?
the linear distance from ground level to the first live branch
What is merchantable height?
the linear distance from an assumed stump height to an arbitrarily fixed upper-stem diameter. This length represents the commercially usable portion of the tree stem
What is the formula to determine tree height?
(tan angle a x D) + (tan angle b xD)= height
What are hypsometers?
Instruments which are used to make direct measurements of heights by standing at a ‘fixed’ horizontal distance (D) from the base of a tree.
How do you determine height from a hypsometer?
top reading-bottom read x(D/scale)
What are the types of hypsometeres?
merrit hypsometer, suunto clinometer, haga altimeter, ocular estimation
What is site quality?
The productivity of a site for tree growth
It expresses the average productivity of a designated land area for growing forest trees.
What are two ways that site quality is measured?
measure a characteristic that is considered expressive of site quality (ex. soil depth), or measure one quality that associates with tree growth
What are the environmental factors that affect site quality?
edaphic- ex. soil depth, pH, nutrient levels, texture, moisture,
Climatic, topographic- altitude, slope angle, position and length,
competitive-other trees and vegetation
What is the most widely used characteristic for site evaluation?
the relationship of tree height to age or the average height that the dominant and codominant trees will attain at key ages such as 50 or 100
Site INDEX
Why is SITE INDEX most commonly used?
it provides a quantitative expression rather than a description, height is closely related to volume, and height and age are easy to measure
How do you determine crown diameter?
take tape to the crown of a tree, on the ground and measure from the cardinal directions and average them
How do you determine crown height?
same procedure as for determining tree height. Units in feet (or meters). Vertical distance from the base of live crown to the top of the tree.
What is the live crown ratio?
The percentage of total height supporting live foliage that is contributing to tree growth
ratio of crown length to total height
used to evaluate vigor and growth rate of trees
What are the Stand distribution of tree crown categories?
dominant, codominant, intermediate suppressed
What are dominant crown parameters?
trees with crowns extending above the general
level of the crown cover (forest canopy) and receiving full
sunlight from above and partly from the side; larger than
average trees in the stand, with crowns well-developed.
What are codominant crown parameters?
trees with crowns forming the general level of
crown cover (forest canopy) and receiving full sunlight from
above, but comparatively little from the sides; usually with
medium-sized crowns more or less crowded on the sides.
What are intermediate crown parameters?
trees shorter than those in the two preceding classes,
but with crowns either below or extending into the crown cover
(forest canopy) formed by codominant and dominant trees, receiving
little direct light from above and none from the sides; usually
with small crowns considerably crowded on the sides
What are suppressed crown parameters?
trees with crowns entirely below the general
level of the crown cover, receiving no direct light from either
above or from the sides
What is age of a tree?
the length of time elapsed since germination of the seed or budding of the sprout
How do you measure the age of a tree? and with what tool?
drill a hole at breast height, increment borer
What is an Even-aged stand?
a group of trees that originated within a short period of time, more popular in shade intolerant species
What is an Uneven-aged stand?
a stand consisting of trees of many ages and corresponding sizes
The trees have originated at different times in a stand free of major disturbances
it is multi-aged
What are fixed area plots?
circular plots, rectangular plots that are locations established and trees are measured
What is species composition?
the distribution of individuals among the different species across a stand
What is an importance value?
a measure of species composition that combines species frequency, species abundance, and species dominance
What is frequency, abundance and dominance in relation to the species composition?
frequency: the number of sampling units in which a species is found
abundance: the number of individuals in a population
dominance: an expression of the size of individuals in a population
What is stand density?
a quantitative term used to describe the degree of stem crowding within an area
What is stocking?
a qualitative expression that compares the existing number of trees within an area to the number desired for optimum growth and yield
What is basal area?
cross-sectional area of a tree taken at breast height (ft2/acre)
What are ways that stand density can be expressed?
basal area, number of trees per acre, and volume using board feet
What is the basal area conversion factor?
.005454
What is the formula for basal area?
(sum of di squared x c) x unit area (10000 m)/sample area
How do you convert area to feet squared? what are the original units?
inches squared, to convert to feet divide pie, r squared by 144
What are horizontal point samples?
Where the probability of sampling a tree is proportional to the tree’s size., using a prism to select tree samples according to the tree's size
What are the four parts of a tree?
the roots, the stump, the stem and the crown
Which part of the tree is more usable wood and receives more attn. for volume determination?
the stem
What is a merchantable stem?
Portion of the stem above a fixed height above the stump to 1) the point where the last merchantable cut can be made or 2) a minimum upper stem diameter.
What is a log?
A merchantable stem with a fixed length (16 feet)
What is The linear distance from an assumed stump height to the merchantable minimum top diameter. Generally in the 6 to 8 inch range?
the sawlog merchantable height
What is The linear distance from an assumed stump height to the merchantable minimum top diameter. Generally in the 4 inch class
?
pulpwood merchantable height
What is volume?
is the three-dimensional magnitude of an object
is the traditional measure of wood quantity
What does volume fucntion for?
tree height, basal area, stem length, tree diameter
What is one of the most difficult parameters to measure?
volume
Who created three stem/log volume equations?
huber's, smalians, newton's
What is wrong with Huber's equation?
he assumed that the mid-point of logs is where the cross-sectional area can be found
What is wrong with Smalian's equations?
it requires measurements at both ends of the logs, but it is the least accurate
What is a disadvantage of Newton's equation?
its time expense limits the amount of research that can be done
What is board feet?
144 cubic inches of wood
What are two types of volume tables?
single entry(local volume)- only one variable used to estimate volume
multiple entry (standard volume)-more than one variable used
Why is tree volume important?
volume is needed to determine the value of timber in a given stand
What are ways of estimating stand volume?
ocular estimation, inventory procedures (ex. fixed plots, horizontal point samples), and by stand volume equation
What is a stand volume equation?
total basal area x average height time a form factor
Who was the first to classify vegetation and how did he do it?
Baron von Humbolt, 18th century, organized based on elevation and latitude zones
Who is Rexford Daubenmire?
pioneered use of plant associations to classify sites in NA in the 1950s
Why do we classify forests?
for common language, to develop vegetation-environmental relationships, and to create a resource inventory
What are the three types of forest classfication systems?
forest cover types, habitat type, ecological land classifcation
What is the forest cover type system?
developed by the Society of Ameircan foresters, the standard system, based on the dominant species with the greatest basal area
Describe the habitat type classfication system.
says that understory will be more stable, uses potential natural vegetation, includes 1 or 2 understory and overstory species
Describe the Ecological Land classification system?
also known as the LEC_landscape ecosystem classification system, uses abiotic factors, uses rankings, and levels, used for regions in the US
What were the first LEC techniques?
Daubenmire, plant associations
Site Index-Eastern US- not accurate, only for commericial species, and not for land itself
What are the components of the LEC objective?
landform, vegetation and soil
What are the different soil types?
mesic, submesic, intermediate, subxerix, xeric-being clayey subsoils with thin surfaces
What is soil?
A collection of natural bodies composed of minerals, organic matter, air, and water that is a result of combinations of natural processes and factors of soil formation
What is a soil pedon?
3D smallest body of soil describe only about 1-10 in of area
What are the factors for soil formation?
time, climate, vegetation and animals, parent material, topography
What is the order for soil profiling horizons?
o,a,e,b,c, r
What is the first soil profile horizon? and describe
organic layer "o" horizon, dominated by living things, sometimes called root mat
Label the 'o' horizon soil layer according to decomposition?
sapric-highly decomposed, o hemic- and o fibric-slightly decomposed
What is the second layer in the soil profile horizons?
A layer, organic accumulation, coarse material, loss of clay and minerals, upper layer mineral soil,
What is the third layer for the soil profile horizons?
E layer, Zone of Eluviation, loss of clay, aluminum and iron, same texture but less organic so lighter in color
What soil profile horizon comes after the E horizon?
B Horizon, Zone of Illuviation, accumulation of clay, iron and aluminum, no organic material, horizon may not exist in young soils
What is the 5th soil profile horizon?
C layer, Unconsolidated Parent Material. no structure or influence on biological activity, may or may not be from soil formed
What is the last soil profile horizon?
R Horizon, Bedrock, parent material, solid
What does dark, reddish and grey colored soils tell us?
dark- organic material exists, reddish-iron (well-drained), grey-lack of iron (poorly drained)
What are the three components to soil color?
hue-relation or red to yellow, value-lightness or darkness of color-light (low-dark, high value-light), chroma- low (more gray), high chromas (less gray)
What is the topmost layer of organic/mineral soil called?
epipedon soil
When the value/chroma is higher than 3/3 what is the soil layer called? is this little soils or most soils?
ochric epipedon, most soils
When the value/chromas is lower than 3/3 what is the soil layer called?
umbric and mollic epipedon
What are ways that we describe soils?
color, texture (sand, silt, clay), touch method- clayey, fine loamy, or coarse loamy,
What is the names of the categories for soil taxonomy?
1. order 2. suborder 3. great groups 4. subgroups 5. families 6. series
What are the major orders of soils in the South eastern US?
1. entisols-young soils, no b horizon, have ochric epipedon, little horizon development
2.Inceptisols-mountain soils, some horizon, ochric epipedon (lighter), development of B horizon (cambic horizon)
3. Ultisols-well developed horizons, ochric and umbric epipedon layers, b-hor. 20% in clay and heavy loss of bases (ca, mg, etc)
What is humus?
the "O" horizon, mor or mull
What can piedmont tell us about the physiological properties of the soil? what about hilly coastal plains? Blue ridge mountains?
a high % clay close to the surface decreases productivity, sandy so a higher % clay helps productivity, -as thickness increases, productivity increases
What is the difference in soil with SW slopes and NE slopes?
SW ridges-xeric soil, thin and exposed
NE-protected toe-slopes, thick, mesic
What can effect slope position?
solar radiation and evapotranspiration, water interflow, and age of soils
What are the effects on the convex slope and a concave slope?
convex-decreased productivity, thinner soils, more erosion, water escapes more
concave-water collects, increased productivity, a-horizon thickening and accumulation of soils
is the values for the landform index are high what does this mean? low?
high-well protected sites, ravines streams, covers
low-slopes and ridges,exposed sites
What is relative density?
density of one species as a percent of total plant density
What is relative basal area?
basal area of one tree species as a percent of total basal area
What are the components for the importance value for vegetation?
relative frequency, abundance and basal area
How do you determine the importance value for trees and sablings? herbs seedlings and shrubs?
trees ans saplings-relative density+relative BA/2) x 100
herbs..etc..-relative density and/or relative BA
For constancy in vegetation (the probability of a species occurring in a plot) what signifies low constancy?
less than 33%
What is a good indicator species?
a species with high constancy and high fidelity-degree of which a species will occur under certain site conditions-high-will ONLY
What tools are used for landform index data and terrain shape index data?
hand-held clinometer
For the aspect what tool is used to measure the azimuth?
a hand-compass
What do we use to dig into the soil?
a soil auger
What tools measure height?
Haga altimeter, Suunto clinometer-both to the nearest foot Merrit hipsometer