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12 Cards in this Set

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Where did the first intensification of wild cereal grasses first occure?
Fertile Crescent in Middle East.

Wheat and Barley
What happened to the climate in the Middle East between 14 500-11 000?
Precipitation increased and a number of cultures emerged including the Kebaran culture in the Levant.
When did the Natufian culture emerge and who did the succeed?
emerged from 13 000-9800B.P

Took over from the Kebaran culture
Where did they live and what happened to the climate during their existence?
lived in a woodland zone.

The rainfall decreased= area of wild grasses dramatically reduced c. 11 000bp
What is complex foraging?
subsistance based on few rich resources, collected intensively and stored. Requiring more sedentary lifestyle thus denser human populations.
Why did the Natufians shift their subsistence base from simple to complex foraging?
Wild cereal grass areas on which they were dependant decrease thus having to adapt. Chose to intensify food quest=intensive collection and storage of wild cereals.

Would have meant weeding and encouraging growth of plants to ensure enough food produced.
What artifacts were left behind by the Natufians which also give strong evidence for sedentary lifestyle?
-Grinding stones = grind cereals
-large bedrock mortars = more effort into buildings = intend to stay put longer.
-food storage pits=indicates surplus and commitment to stay
-pits for roasting plant foods
-microblades of flint exhibiting polish=use in cutting cereal plant stalks ie. wheat, barley, millet, sorghum.
Why would they have relied on cereals and what is the evidence for this reliance?
seeds full of protein and carbohydrates.

heavy wear on teeth = prob. from stone particles mixed into meals when processed with stone grinding tools.

also increased levels of strontium in bones = high levels in cereals

the large storage and roasting pits
Why does the intensification of food quest suggest a sedentary life?
intensification of food = food source stays put and monitored for best time to harvest.

Also larger quantities collected so it is more efficient to store it rather than carry it around with you.
Were there any evident permenant structures indicating long term site occupation?
Houses had stone foundations 2-9 m in diameter. Labour required to build indicates intended for long term use.

Also seen in sites Rosh Zin in Israel and Hayonim Cave.
Were the dead buried with artifacts?
Bone, tooth and shell beads and pendants commonly found.

Carved stone statues of animals and people.
When did the first signs of artificial selection/domestication occure
Natufians 11-10 000 B.P. when colder climate - BAR YOSEF

Also seen at same time in Israel, Iran and Turkey ie. domesticated wheats emmer and eikorn.