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13 Cards in this Set

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Newton's second law of motion
Acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force applied
-F prop. a

Force equals mass x acceleration
pressure gradient
The amount of pressure change that occurs over a given horizontal distance
The stronger the PGF (steeper gradient) the stronger the wind
Coriolis force
Arises from fact that earth is a rotating frame of reference, not stationary
changes wind direction, not wind speed
To be significant, the air must be MOVING; it must NOT be on the equator (0° latitude); and it must be LARGE SCALE.

Net result: winds deflected to the RIGHT in the N.H.
particulate matter
-particles may remain suspended in the atmosphere for several weeks
-particles are small enough to penetrate into the lungs
-particles can cause a significant reduction in visibility
This gas will replace oxygen in blood hemoglobin and thereby reduce the transport of
oxygen to the brain
carbon monoxide (CO)
Newton's first law of motion
An object at rest will remain at rest, or remains moving in a straight line, unless acted upon by a force(s).
if an object is changing direction (e.g., wind blowing around a low pressure system) then:
A force must be acting on it
It must be accelerating
Centripetal force
derived from: center + towards) found where wind circulates around a Low or High. It must exist because wind flowing around a curve (e.g., L or H) is accelerating (Newton’s second law) (see section 3, below)
Frictional force
reduces wind speed due to surface roughness such as mountains, forests,
Geostrophic wind
straight line motion, parallel to contour lines
Gradient wind
curved path around low/high pressure centers in upper atmosphere
Cyclonic flow
counterclockwise around a Low (in N.H
Anticyclonic flow
clockwise around a High (in N.H.)