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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
large site in North America; missippian site; social differentiations; large mounds -- monumental arch;
Poverty Point
Lousiania; late archaic site
AD. 1000-1450;
a spearthrower, or wooden shaft, used to propel a spear or dart
Southern Cult
a network of interaction, exchange, and shared information present over much of the s.eastern usa from around ad 1200-1500S
the study of artisitc representatinos or icons that usually have religous or ceremonianal significance
wattle and daub
a building technique that uses a framework of poles, interpsrersed iwth smaller poles and twigs; the wooden frame is plastered iwth mud or a mud mixture
ball court
a prehistpanic structure that was the site of ritual ballgames
a mud mixture used to make sun-dried bricks for buildings in arid areas
floodwater farming
a method of farming that recovers floodwater and diverst it to selected fields to supplement the water supply; used in the anasazi areas
a semi-subterranean ceremonial room ofound at sites throughout the american southwest; ie. chaco canyon
a stone-masonry complex of adjoing rooms found in teh american southwest
chronology of the native north american sites
1. poverty point
2. hopwell
3. cahokia
4. moundville
5. the draper site
6. snaketown
7. chaco canyon
8. ozette
southwestern us cultures
1. hohakam
2. anasazi
3. mongollo
usually ascribed positions inhabited at birth; creation of a hierachy of social order; the chiefs roles included: political authority, intersocietial politics, ceremonial leadership, war;
-creation of cheifdoms was helped by the monitering of the agricultureal surpluses; or in terms of the ozette site; control of canoes; or irrigations; the chiefs usually held more exotic goods or high-status items
grave goods
the items buried with individuals at death; they offer archaeologists a wealth of information about the organization of pre-historic groups; - arch look at the positions of the graves, the elaborateness of tombs, grave offerings -- all of which speak of the deceased social positioning
> complex socieites with marked social differentiation usually have a greater degree of mortuary variation than those less hierarchical in nature
ex; moundville site
ascribed vs. achieved status
- ascribed status: social status / prestige attributed to an individual according to achievements or skills rather than inherited social position
- ascribed status: social status and prestige attributed to an individual at birth, regardless of ability or accompllishments
monumental architecture
> this is a characteristic of complex societies
- they have many differnt purposes: from commemorating the dead, to platforms, to high-status residences, glorify the ruling family, or for political/religous functions; sometimes they reveal the labour forces required to construct them
ex: Monks mound, at cahokia- the largest structure in n.a
Missippi; alabama; from ad. 600 - peak: 1050/1250 -
trade / exhcnage
- most human societies ingage in trade
- documented archeologically by the presence of foreign or exotic goods; the amount and distrubtion of these goods helps to determine the extent of the exchange
poverty point
late archic site; Lousiana; through to have been a large agregation site
post molds
the circular remains, often just a dark stain in the soil, of a wooden post htat formed part of the frame of prehistoric structures
of or related to the practice of working or cutting precious or semiprecious stones, usually for oramental use
on of the major cultural traditions of the american southwest; centered in the deserts of s. arozina
one of the major cultural traditinos in teh american s.w
- centered in the northern southwest/ 4-corners region
the collective name applied to the agricultural societies that inhabited portions ofthe eastern us; from ad 700 - 1600; the mississippian peoples constructed eathern platform mounds and shared certain basic cultural conventions
a form of government with an internally specialized and hierarchically organized decision-making apparatus. A state generally has three or more administrative levels; usually socially and economically stratified; usually inherited status, wealth, and political power.
a union of dispersed territories, colonies,states, and unrelated peoples under one soverign rule
the study of human cultures through firsthand observation
a handpainted book on bark paper or animal skins folded like a screen
chronology of mesoamerican sites:
1. san jose mogote
2. san lorenzo / la venta
3. monte alban
4. tikal
5. el mirador
6. teotihuacan
7. Palenque
8. Tula
9. chichen itza
10. tenochtitlan
all mesoamerican sites:
- tula
- tenochitlan
- culcuilco
-loma de la coyotera
- san jose mogote
- monte alban
- gheo shih
- san lorenzo
- el tajin
- teotihuacan
- tres zapotes
- la venta
- pomona
- palenque
- yaxchilan
- siebal
- calakmul
- san jose
- uaxactun
- el mirador
- chichen itza
chronology in relation to mesoamerica:
- formative / pre-classic
- classic
- post classic
dance; a life-size carving of captive or a prisoner of war depicted in bas-relief on stone slabs at san jose mogote or monte alban, oaxaca
geographic regions of mesoamerica:
1. tehuacan valley
2. valley of oaxaca
3. chiapas
4. guatemala
the region consisting of central and southern mexico, guatemala, belize, el salvador, adn the western parts of honduras and nicaragua that was the focus of comples, hierarchical states at the time of the spanish contact
san jose mogote
[height: 1500 - 1150 BC]
- valley of oaxaca
- almost continual occupation
- preceeds the rise of the first urban civilization
- part of the zapotec state??
- represents the shift to village life
- one of first plaza areas -- communal public space
san lorenzo / la venta
> olmec sites
- represents roots of the mesoamerican civilization
the aztec name for the late prehispanic inhabitants of the gulf coast region of mexico
> the olmec horizion was at its height around: 1150- 700 BC
- it is distinguished by specific sytles of monuments and art: ie. the monumental heads, were-jagugar stylized art, ;
- many of these art forms are found across sites of mesoamerica and it is these widespread stylistic motifs that have become recognized as elements of what archaeologist refer to as the olmec horizn
a wiedly distrubuted set of cultrual traits and artifact assemblages whose distribution and chronology suggest they spread reapidy.
- often composed of artifacts associated with a shared symbolic or ritual system
clovis horizon
- an arch culture during the paleo-indian period in N.A.
- defined by a type of fluted point; the majority of which were dispersed east of the missippi
- named after the first site where these were found in folsom, NM
- the clovis horizon represents a mobile groups of pre-native americans
- an arch culture during the paleoindian period - N.A.
- found primarily in the great plains regions
- one of the several of the distinct, regionsal types that sprung up following the clovis horizion
- Lindenmeir site (n. colorado) -- one of the best examples of a folsom site
what are the sources of information that archaeologist use to examine past societies and liefeways?
- the arch record
- site
- feature
- artifacts
How to archaeologists interpret the arch record?
- site formation processes (cultural and natural)
- dating: stratigraphy, seriation, absolute and relative dating
- context, associations, provenience
- artifact classification: function and style
- beringia
- paleoindian
- big-game hunters
- monte verde
- Lindenmeire
- Dust cave
- Clovis
- Folsom
archaic period
- poverty point
- gatecliff shelter
- koster
- carrier mills
how did people adapt to their post glacial environents and demoggraphic changes they encountered?
- the archaic period is marked by a burst in population growth, which placed more stress on the natural resources, created less space which in turn promoted peoples to return to the same places = the creation of 'place'
- in the post-glcial warming period, the large-game became extict and new food resources had to be conjured
what plants were domesticated in the new world?
- tubbers, squash, maize, cereals, beans,
where and when did people domesticate plants in the new world?
- domestication
- cultivation
- tehuacan
- Guila Naquitz
- Guitarrero
> people domesticated plants first in mesoameria; yet the pattern of domestication was differnt in teh new worlkd than in the old world; here, plants were domesticated and then thousands of years later did the people shift to sedentary lifewyas
domestication vs. cultivation
- domestication and cultivation are slifghtly differnt
- domestication refers to an actually genetic change by humans on the structe of plans
- cultivation refers to the taming of plants or animals so to speak; ie. elepahns are cultivated' or tamed never domesticated??
how complex were the late prehistoric societies of north america/
- chief
- chiefdoms
- hohokam
- snaketown
- anasazi
- pueblo bonito
- chaco canyon
- paquime
the greater southwest:
- anaszi
- hohokam
- paquime
what happened to the complex socieites of the greater southwest?
- irrigation agriculture
the eastern woodlands
the mississippian chiefodms
how do arch investigate soical complexity from arch evidence?
- cahokia=
- moundville
- sprio
- Etowah
- Lake Jackson
how have arch interpreted the SECC?
- south eastern civic ceremonial complex
the formative base
- complex socities in mesoamerica
- formative
- olmec
- tres zapotes
- la venta
- san lorenzo
- chalcatzingo
- san jose mogote
complex socities in the maya region
- el mirador
- classic period maya: copan, tikal
- post classic maya: chichen itza
<> how have archaeologist explained teh classic maya collapse?
complex societeies in the highland mexico
- monte alban
- teotihuacan
- toltec
- tula
- aztec
- tenochtitlan
<> who were the pochtecas?
what happened to teh states and empires of mesoamerica?
- herman cortez
- epidemic diseases
what is the maritime hypothesis?
- el paraiso
what was the chavin horizon
- chavin
- chavin de huantar
how were the inca able to conquer and rule their huge empire?
- inca
- quipu
- vertical archipelago
what happened to the staets and empires of south america?
- francisco pizarro
- atahualpa
- cuzco
-manchu picchu
- huanco pampa
why did complex socities develop in the new world?
- ?