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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What were some of the positive results of the Crusades?
the growth of Med. trade
improvement in the level of European technology
greater contact between Europe and Byzantine and Islamic civilizations
increased power of kings/monarchs
What were some negative results of the Crusades?
decreased power of the Catholic Church
destruction of Constantinople
bitterness/hatred between Jews, Christians, Muslims
Where did common law begin?
What civilization conquered Jerusalem and Palestine in the 600s?
Arab Muslims
Who was Saladin?
Seljuk Turk (Muslim) who reconquered Jerusalem leading to the Second Crusade
What were the Crusades?
attempt by Christians to reconquer Jerusalem
When Christians referred to the Holy Lands what were the referring to?
What were the effects of the bubonic plague?
death, scarcity of labor, helped bring an end to feudalism
Who was Urban II?
Pope who made the call for the First Crusade
What was the tragic result of the Fourth Crusade?
destruction of Constantinople
Which European country was once ruled by Muslims?
Which monarch established common law in England?
Henry II
Which monarch was forced to sign the Magna Carta?
How did Italian cities benefit from the destruction of Constantinople, their location and increased trade?
they served as trading centers, connecting Mediterranean and Middle Eastern markets
Which nations fought in the Hundred Years' War?
England and France
Why was the Hundred Years' War fought?
French monarchs resented England's influence in their country
Who won the Hundred Years' War?
Who was Joan of Arc?
she inspired the French forces to victory at Orleans and the Hundred Years' War
What is heresy?
denial of basic church teachings
What is nationalism?
the desire to form a nation
What is the Russian word for monarch?
tsar (czar)
What is usury?
the act of lending money at the high rate of interest
What new economic practices emerged in the late Middle Ages?
new banking practices; letters of credit, new accounting practices using Arabic numerals, interest
What was the Inquisition?
a court used to try heretics
What was the Magna Carta?
English document that diminished the power of the monarch
Who was Philip II?
Spanish monarch who ruled Spain's great overseas empire until the defeat of the Spanish Armada
Who was William the Conqueror?
Norman king who in 1066 defeated the Saxon infantry at the Battle of Hastings beginning the unification of England as a nation
What were the Crusades?
Christian attempts to conquer the Holy Lands from the Muslims
Who were Ferdinand and Isabella?
Spanish monarchs who built Spain into a "stronger" nation by expelling Jews and Muslims through the Spanish Inquisition
What was the Black Death?
bubonic plague (mostly) that swept through Europe killing 1/3 of Europeans
Who was Ivan the Great?
Russian monarch who defeated the Mongols and expanded Russia as a nation
What religion helped Ivan the Great unify the people of Russia?
Orthodox Christianity
Whose powers were weakened as a result of the Magna Carta?
monarch of England
What were the Crusader States?
feudal estates established by the Crusaders in the Middle East following the First Crusade