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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Federalism Constitutional References
Article 1, section 8: enumerated powers of convress (including interstate trade) and 'necessary and proper clause'

Article VI: national supremacy (subordinates state laws that conflict with us constitution and congressional laws

10th Admendment reserves to the states and the people those powers not adressed in U.S. Constitution
Federalism Court Cases
Marbury vs. Madison
McCullouch vs. Maryland
Marbury vs. Madison
Judicial review, allowing courts to rule actions of legislative and executive brances unconstitutional
McCulloch vs. Maryland
reinforced the idea of national supremacy and application of necessary and proper clause
Dual Federalism
'layer cake' two levels of government each with seperate and distinct powers
Cooperative Federalism
'marble cake' wherein powers/duties are intermingled with both levels of government involved with setting policy and providing services
States' rights
idea that powers not specifically conferred to national government are left to states
Implied powers
powers granted by congress to aid them in carrying out their enumerated powers
Enumerated powers
17 explicit powers of congress listed in article 1 of constitution
declaration by sate that action of national government does not apply to that state
"Elastic" clause
nickname for 'necessary and proper' clause in Article 1 Section8
Modern Federalism
sometimes referred to as 'coercive' or fiscal federalism

often a reflection of national crises and or leaders' priorities (new deal, etc)

Preemption mandate, restraint
grants in aid/conditions of aid
Preemption, mandate, restraint
congressional attempts to regulate/direct states' actions
Conditions of Aid
requirements states must meet in order to obtain/retain national fuding for programs

'carrot and stick' for promoting national policy objectives where there is no constitutional authroity to do so
Grants in aid
may be Block Grants-general purpose, more discretion at local/sate level

Categorical Grants-specific purpose less discretion at local/state level, figured either as specific program grants or on a formula basis.
Local Governments
Municipal and County

Special districts (ie school, or other jurisdictions set up to handle water management issues, etc)
All are created by state govs in their individual state constitutions.
Purposes of Government
Maintain order- rule and protect life (hobbes) property (locke)

Provide goods

Promote equality
Two dilemmas of Government
Original Dilemma
Original Dilemma
Freedom vs. Order
modern dilemma
balance between freedom and equality
Political Ideologies are?
Beliefs about the scope of government ie what they should/should not do

Ideologies are baded on viewpoints concernign civil rights, economic issues, personal responsiblity, law and order issues. Specific points of concerns are political economy, justice, and due process rights
Spectrum of Ideologies
Totalitarianism, socialism, democratic socialism, anarchism, libertarianism, "laissez faire"
Totalitarian ideologies

*both feature total political and economic control by gov
socialism plus political imperialism, no civil liberties protections, goal is to eliminate capitalism
extreme nationalism, fear capitalism, based on elites
gov control over economic activity in varying decress
may allow private enterprise
Democratic Socialism
gov control over economy but democratic institutions exist, also known as welfare states
Those who like the least gov
anarchism, libertarianism, laissex faire
all gov is harmful to individual
small gov best, focus only on protecting security and rights
"Laissez Faire"
economic freedom from government intrusion
Moderates known as
Middle of the road
Left of the "road"
Right of the Road
Classic Liberalism
Adam smith, laissez faire, freedom to choose with no government role,
Anti Federalists,
Jeffersons Democratic republicans
Modern Liberalism
liberals see government as way to ensure freedom and equality (economic and political equality)
Democratic party
Conservatives 1700
Federalists, feared liberalism would result in chaos
Now Conservatives
seek smaller gov control over economic activity
value use of goc to set morality

Models of Democracy
Government only to to reinforce majority of populations will
groups fight over power and try to influence decisions
Very smnall # of high power people control policy/decision making
Events influenced colonists outlook regarding nationhood and formation of government
In europe emergence of new ideas
Seven years war
proliferation of slavery
Tense relations with American Indians
British actions to support mercantilist policies
Why did we revolt
colonists developed characterists common amongst themselves but different from England
Colonists unique characterists
No titled aristocracy
ownershit of property by yeoman farmers
religious diversity
overall less poverty than england
less deference to central authrity
Lack of urbanization adn associated institutions
Slaverin all 13 states reminds whites of difference in freedom and bondage
Characteristics gave colonists nickname
rugged individualists
Beginnings of self government political heritage
greek and roman cultures, those inherited from england
Colonies run by
royal govs, local courts, albany plan of union, slave codes in each colony
Beginnings of self-gov
1st Continental Congress was
1st constitutional congress met in protest of _________ and agree to
Intolerable acts,
form local committees
boycott english companies
communicate with each other
send olvie branch petition
meet again if fails
2nd constitutional congress meet to
gauge effectiveness and exchange info
assemble continental army
declare independence from england
establish states in place of colonies
Historical Docs
1776 dec of ind
1777 art of confederation
1781 ars of confederation ratified
Declaration of Independence 4 parts
1. Statement of political philosophy
2. List of grievances against british gov to king george
3. Statement of intent to sperate from british rule become USA
Articles of Confederation
protected state sovereignty
national gov existed to prosecute war provide international voice of US but little else
Nat gov could not tax states or persons could create currency
negotiate trade agreements and so could states
Art of Cofed national government struture
no seperate pres or executive branch, no seperate court system
Colonial American 3 Groups of Colonies
Northern Colonies
Mid Atlantic
Northern colonies include
Mass, NH, Conn, RI
Mid Atlantic Colonies include
NY, NJ, Penn, Delaware, Maryland
Southern Colonies Include
Virginia, georgia, N/S Carolinas
Northern Colonies Industry
few farms, mostly factories, ship building, commerce
Norther Colonies Physical Growth
Urban towns/cities, roads other intrastructure
Northern Colonies Religion
Puritans and Pilgrims others discourage
Mid Atlantic Industry
mixed farming/fishing/commerce
Mid Atlantic Growth
mixed-rural and urban, major cities along coast
Mid Atlantic Religion
Mixed, more toleration for catholics and others
Southern Industry
Farming of commodities for domestic consumption and trade
Southern growth/development
rural with isoloated development along river, few coastal towns
Southern Religion
Mostly anglican, and native african animism
4 major principles of Constitution
Republicanism, Federalism, Seperation of Powers, Checks and balances
power in people excersized by their representatives
Seperation of Powers
different powers to each branch so no one person can monopolize
Checks and Balances
gives each branch some power to limit actions of other branches
Article 2
Executive article
creates office of executive, describes qualifications to be pres, selecting president through electoral college
Article 3
establishes supreme court, specifies method of selecting/removing judges, most details of judicial system left to congress
Article 1
Legislative article, 2 chamber character of congress enumerated powers
Framers Motives
leading to Cons Convention was inability of national or state government to maintain order under the loose structure of art of confed
protect on impending monarchy and agreed on power to tax 2 neccessary and proper clause 3 supremacy clause
New Jersey Plan branches
Stick with 1 branch (congress
NJ plan Leg
pres picked by leg branch
unicameral leg
congress equal representation
limited court system
Virginia plan branches
Virginia Legislative
bi cameral, direct election by congress
chosen by legislatures
proportional representation
pres chosen by leg
national courst system judges for life.
Great Compromise
Each state equal rep according to pop in house
Rev bills must origniate in house
1 executive electoral college
Each states same # votes as they had in 2 chambers of congress combined
new Jersey plan Main pieces
less power to central gov equal rep to states
virginia plan main thing
powerful central gov