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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Minimal Pairs
a pair of words that differ in one sound only. Rhying words are minimal pairs, as well as substitutions in medial and final sounds. Some minimal pairs may be difficult for ELLs from certain alnguages to discern.
Voiced, Unvoiced counterparts
Two articulations of a sound that differ only in that the voiced, the voice box is used, such as /z/ and in unvoiced, the voice box is not used /s/. Other counterparts may be varitations of one phoneme, such as /b/ and /p/ in Arabic or /s/ and /z/ in Spanish. In English the voiced and unvoiced articulations of /th/ are variations of one phoneme such as in /the/ and /thing/.
phonemic awarness
The ability to hear sounds and distingish them, the connections a learner makes to a sounds and their patterns in a language. This extends to written symbols.
phoneme, phonology
The sound units in a language, the study of sound units in a language.Phonemes are represented many times in English by letters, albit, inconsistantly.
morpheme, morphology
Smallest unit in a language that carries meaning. Boy has meaning by its self (free morpheme), while /s/ does not carry meaning by itself so it is (bound).
syntax, grammer
The rules governing the use of language, indictaed most simplisticlly through word order and application of morphemes.
The meaning of words, phrases, sentances, and longer discourse;meaning in context.
the level of conveying meaning within a larger context.
The level of conveying meaning within a larger context. The sentence meaning may have a different interpretation within that context. The context may affect the learner's interpretation of the language.This is the level of sarcasm and inferneces, and often humor. Some learners may interpret on the semantic level and miss the pragmatic essence of the communicative act.
Several sentences in conversations, essays, speeches, etc.
writing process
The producting of a writing projest from beginning to end withy organizing ideas, planning the progression, composing a draft, revising, editing, and publishing into the final product.
teaching concepts in language context, and not as isolated skills, ie vocabulary memorization
silent period
Also known as the preproduction stage in shich a learner does not speak or write, except to imitate or copy, but is taking in language and putting it together cognitively.
Langauge process
Themental cognitive methods a learner uses to comprehend input and express output which leads to acquisition.
language development
-the process a acquiring a language, whether is a first language or a new language. There are certain universal orders to particulars of the language acquisition.
the ability of a person to understand, speak, read or write two languages. A person may have different levels of bilingual abilities in each domain.
two-way immersion
instruction that integrates native speakers of English with speakers of another language and that provides content instruction in both languages.
Sheltered English
a classroom comprised entirely of ELLs, where English is taught focused on the needs of the ELLs to acquire English by giving them comprehensible input.
grammar-translation method
an older traditional method of second language learning with heavy focus on learning the rules of the language, often learned through direct translation from the native language
to understand the meaning of input, whether listening or reading. Teachers use strategies to increase comprehension
listening or reading, as opposed to output-speaking or writing. Students must be able to mentally process input prior to producing output. Teachers must be sure that input is comprehensible to ELLs
the stage sometimes called “silent stage” where an ELL is taking in language, but not speaking or writing, except for copying or repeating. Teachers use strategies such as TPR, questions requiring a yes or no answer and questions requiring “x or y” nonverbal response. Learners may also draw story pictures, maps, etc.
early production
the stage when a learner can speak in one or two-word phrases. They can use memorized formulaic expressions, such as “Go to the bathroom?”
speech emergence
the stage a learner reaches when s/he can communicate with simple sentences.
itermediate fluency
the stage a learner reaches when s/he can use complex sentences and are willing to share opinions and thoughts. There will be many errors made in the language, but this is the time for teachers to focus on learning strategies to understand more complex concepts.
advanced fluency
after 4-10 years a learner has achieved cognitive academic language proficiency and will be near-native in their ability to perform in content area learning.
Community Language Learning
an approach where the teacher acts in a consultative role and builds relationships among the learners to lower the affective filter
output, speaking or writing as opposed to input, listening and reading. Production lags behind the input skills, because students must construct meaning before they can form their own utterances or text.
lexical vocabulary
-nouns, verbs, adjectives/adverbs, and prepositions—the very minimum essential to communicate in any language. These are words that can be used before the rules of grammar are learned
functional vocabulary
all words beyond the lexical level. The language user must be able to order words into phrases and sentences, which requires some skills with the grammar.
the sum of meaningful words that a learner knows.
content-based approach
-focus of lesson is on learning content with language learning incorporated into the lesson. Content is medium to acquiring academic language.
communicative approach
using communicative based language learning strategies and activities to build acquisition. The exchanges must be meaningful, contextually enriching, and comprehensible.
Natural Method
language learning based on given the student time to process meaningful input before begin expected to produce. The concentration here is for the teacher to make the input comprehensible.
-two or more consonant sounds in a row articulated in succession quickly and smoothly. Spanish speakers may have problems articulating words beginning with sp and st
a phoeneme represented by two letters—ch,sh,and th
molding the meaning of utterances through volume, pitch, tone, speed, rhythm, and paralinguistic cues, gestures and body language.
using gestures and body language to communicate, consciously or unconsciously.
articulation/point of articulation
where the teeth, tongue, and lips make contact in the mouth to make sounds. Sometimes a teacher must explicitly model correct articulation for ELLs, such as highlighting that the tip of the tongue should be at the tip of the front teeth and the air will leave from a small space at the top of the tongue.
linguistic competence
an individual’s tacit understanding of what is acceptable or not in the language, how to use the rules of the language
communicative competence
the ability to use language correctly and appropriately to accomplish communication goals. Knowing how to express who, what, where, when, how, and why.
Strategic competence
knowing how to recognize and repair communication breakdowns, how to work around one’s gap in knowledge of the language,
total physical response
a method for early language learners where the learner’s responses are physical. The teacher may tell the learner to point, show, go to, etc. and may begin with one command and progressively add on as the learner can retain more.
i + 1-
- from Krashen Input Hypothesis that indicates that students learn when the new material is comprised of comprehensible input plus a little more.
The study of speech sound themselves. Phoneticians study the production and articulation of sound.
This is the study of the organization of language sounds. Phonologist are concerned with sound contrst in one language but not another like the sh, sh soun d in english which is not in spanish.
This is the make-up of words. Morphologist study such questions as the following. word formation, what makes words change, root words.
This is the study of how phrases and sentences larger than the word are consturcted. Word order. the costruction of sentences in languages.
The study of meaning. Semanticists study what words mean, metaphors,how many meanings can be found in a sentence.
Historical Linguistics
This is the study of how languages change over time.
This is the study of how language is used in a society.
This is the study of how language is processed in the mind. How we hear a string of language sounds and make sense of them.
This is the study of the actual encoding of language in the brain. What parts of the brian is language stored in...
Computational Linguistics
Learning and understanding a language involves computing the properties of langugae that are described in phonology, syntax, and semantics.