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23 Cards in this Set

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bi-
two
Prefix meaning two, as in biceps or bicuspid.

Bicuspid: Having two flaps or cusps. The heart valve that is called the bicuspid valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle. Although the aortic valve in the heart normally is tricuspid (with three cusps), it may sometimes be bicuspid.

di-
two
Prefix taken directly from the Greek meaning twice or double or twofold, as in diacid, diamelia (absence of two limbs), diandry (double male genetic contribution) and digyny (double female genetic contribution); the drugs diazepam, dicyclomine (Bentyl), and diethylstilbestrol (DES); etc. Di- should not be confused with the prefix dia- which has a wholly different meaning.
diplo-
double
Diploid: The number of chromosomes in most cells of the body. This number is 46 in humans. It is naturally twice the haploid number of 23 chromosomes contained in human eggs (ova) and sperm.

hemi-
half
Prefix meaning one half, as in hemiparesis, hemiplegia, and hemithorax. From the Greek hemisus meaning half and equivalent to the Latin semi-. As a general rule, not always followed, hemi- goes with words of Greek origin and semi- with those of Latin origin.
hex-
hexa-
six
Hexadactyly: The presence of an extra digit, a sixth finger or toe, which is a very common congenital malformation (birth defect).

This condition is called hexadactyly. The word hexadactyly literally means six digits. In medical usage, hexadactyly does not specify whether the six digits are fingers or toes (although in Greek "dactylos" is without equivocation a finger).

macr-
macro-
large
Macrobiota: The living organisms (or flora and fauna) of a region that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye. From the Greek macro-, large + bios, life.
maxi-
extra large
Maxilla: The maxilla is the major bone of the upper jaw

mega-
big, large, great
(prefix): The combining form "mega-" comes from the Greek "megas", great or big and means abnormally large. Megalocephaly is too large a head. Megacardia is too large a heart. Megacolon is too large a colon.
micro-
small
Prefix derived from the Greek "mikros" meaning small. Examples of the many biomedical terms containing "micro-" include the following:

microangiopathy,
microcephaly,
microcystic (as in microcystic corneal dystrophy),
microhematuria,
microorchidism,
micropenis,
microphallus,
micropigmentation ,
microscope,
microscopy (as in electron microscopy), and
microsomia.
In premed and medical student lingo, micro is short for microbiology (or microscopic anatomy, i.e. histology).

The opposite of micro- is macro-.

mini-
small, miniature
Minipill: A form of oral contraceptive taken daily, like combined oral contraceptives (the "pill"), but containing only the hormone progestin and no estrogen.

mono-
one
Monocular: 1. With one eye, as in monocular vision.
2. With one eyepiece, as in a monocular microscope.

multi-
many
Multicellular: Consisting of more than one cell. Humans are multicellular and have been estimated to possess 100,000 billion cells. Multicellular is as opposed to unicellular.

noni-
nine
oct-
octa-
octo-
eight
Octogenarian: Someone in his or her eighties, that is, between 80 and 89 years of age. See also: Age by decade.

pent-
penta-
five
Pentapeptide: A peptide consisting of five amino acids.

poly-
many, much
1) Prefix meaning much or many For example, polycystic means characterized by many cysts. 2) Short form for polymorphonuclear leukocyte, a type of white blood cell.

Polycentric: Having two or more centers. Polycentric disease is usually referred to as multicentric disease. See also: Multifocal.

quadri-
quadru-
four
Quadriparesis: Weakness of all four limbs, both arms and both legs, as for example from muscular dystrophy.

Quadriplegic: Pertaining to quadriplegia (paralysis of all four limbs -- both arms and both legs), as from a high spinal cord accident.


semi-
half, partial
Semiallogeneic: Sharing some but not all genes, as in parent-child relationships. Individuals are allogeneic when their genes at one or more loci are not identical.

semicomatose
sept-
septi-
seven
Septicemia: Systemic (bodywide) illness with toxicity due to invasion of the bloodstream by virulent bacteria coming from a local seat of infection. The symptoms of chills, fever and exhaustion are caused by the bacteria and substances they produce. The disorder is treated with massive doses of antibiotics. Also known as blood poisoning.

Septuagenarian: Someone in his or her seventies.
sex-
sexi-
six
Sexagenarian: Someone in his or her sixties.

tetra-
four
Tetracycline: A family of broad-spectrum antibiotics effective against a remarkably wide variety of organisms. Bacteria susceptible to teracycline include H. flu (Hemophilus influenzae), strep (Streptococcus pneumoniae), Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the cause of gonorrhea). Tetracycline is also used to treat nongonococcal urethritis (due to Ureaplasma), Rocky mountain spotted fever, typhus, chancroid, cholera, brucellosis, anthrax, and syphilis. It is used in combination with other medications to treat Helicobacter pylori, the bacteria associated with ulcers of the stomach and duodenum.

Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects that are present together at birth, accounting for about 10% of all congenital heart disease.

tri-
three
Triceps: The triceps muscle extends (straightens) the elbow. Its full name is the triceps brachii. It can be felt as the tense muscle in the back of the upper arm while doing push-ups.

Its full name is the triceps brachii. The triceps has three heads, or origins. "Triceps" is Latin for three-headed and is derived from "tri", three + "caput", head.

Tricuspid: Having three flaps or cusps. The valve that is called the tricuspid valve is situated between the right atrium and right ventricle and permits blood to flow only from the atrium into the ventricle. The aortic valve in the heart also has three cusps.
uni-
one
Unicellular: Consisting of one cell only. Some organisms, such as bacteria, are unicellular. Unicellular is in contrast to multicellular.

Unilateral: Having, or relating to, one side. Unilateral is as opposed, for example, to bilateral (which means having, or relating to, two sides).