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40 Cards in this Set

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Nasal Cavity Anterior
opening through nares posterior opening the choanae
Nasal Cavity Lateral
Anterior is made up of hyaline cartilage

Ethmoid forming superior and middle conchae, inferior concha (separate bone), maxilla, lacrimal, palatine, and sphenoid
Nasal Cavity Superior
Nasal bone, small part of frontal and cribiform plate of ethmoid
Nasal Cavity Inferior
Maxilla (palatine process) and palatine (horizontal plate)
Nasal Cavity Septum
Anterior is made of hyaline cartilage (septal cartilage)

Posterior/superior: ethmoid (perpendicular plate)
Posterior/inferior: vomer

Minor contribution from nasal crest of maxillary and palatine bones
Nasopharynx
Inferior to body of sphenoid bone and anterior to occipital bone, atlas, and axis.

Posterior to choanae and posterior superior to soft palate.

Anterior to pharyngobasilar fascia and superior pharyngeal constrictor

Uvula marks the end of the nasopharynx
Superior constrictor muscle
Associated with posterior aspect of nasopharynx
Middle constrictor muscle
Associated with lower oral pharynx
Inferior constrictor muscle
Associated with laryngeal pharynx
External Constrictor muscles, palatopharyngeus, and salpingopharyngeus: Innervation
Vagus n.
Innervation of stylopharyngeus muscle
Glossopharyngeal n.
External muscles of pharynx
Constrictors (3; Superior, middle and inferior)
Internal longitudinal muscles of pharynx
Palatopharyngeus, stylopharyngeus, and salpingopharyngeus
Levator veli palatine: Innervation and function
Vagus n.

Elevates soft palate
Tensor veli palatini: Innervation and function
Trigeminal n.

Tenses soft palate and opens pharyngotympanic tube
T/F: Both of the palatini muscles have some attachment to the pharyngotympanic tube
TRUE
How are the constrictors positioned relative to one another and what purpose does this arrangement serve?
The constrictor overlap with each other.

This arrangement helps propel food down when swallowing.
Frontal Paranasal Sinus
Posterior to superciliary arches and nose

Drains through ethmoidal infundibulum into semilunar hiatus
Ethmoidal Paranasal Sinus
Anterior drains to middle meatus, middle to middle meatus and posterior to superior meatus
Sphenoidal Paranasal Sinus
In body of sphenoid; Drains to sphenoethmoidal recess
Maxillary Paranasal Sinus
Drains through maxillary ostium to middle meatus
What is a clinical consideration associated with the ethmoid paranasal sinus?
Infection of the ethmoid sinus can cause problems with sight because of its close proximity to the optic canal
Which sinus is most prone to infection and why? How would you help the patient drain this sinus?
Maxillary because the drainage opening is very high up on the nasal wall, with the majority of the maxillary sinus located below the drainage point.

Have patient lie on side to drain one maxillary sinus and then switch sides to drain the other.
Pharyngeal Tonsil (Adenoids): Location
Roof of posterior area of nasopharynx
Tubal Tonsil: Location
Near pharyngeal opening of pharyngotympanic tube
Palatine Tonsil: Location
On either side of oropharynx between palatine arches
Lingual tonsil: Location
Posterior area of tongue, posterior to vallate papillae
Location of Larynx
Inferior to hyoid bone and superior to cricoid cartilage

Includes the thyroid (aka. laryngeal) cartilage
What is bleeding from ethmoidal/sphenopalatine areas associated with clinically?
Cocaine addicts. Cocaine use erodes the septum and vascular tissue, causing intense nose bleeding.
What are the three major cartilagenous structures in this area and what type of cartilage are they?
Epiglottis-elastic.

Thyroid (laryngeal) and cricoid- both are hyaline
What is the purpose of the arytenoid cartilage?
It is the site of attachment for the vocal cords. This cartilage assists in pivoting vocal cords to change the pitch of the voice.
What is the innervation and function of the cricothyroid muscle?
Innervation: External laryngeal n. from vagus

Function: Tenses the vocal ligament by tilting the laryngeal cartilage (pivot cartilage forward, increase tension on vocal cords, increases pitch of voice)
Transverse and oblique arytenoids: Attachment and Function
Attach to arytenoid cartilage

Contraction adducts arytenoid cartilage, approximating the vocal folds, and closing the rima glottidus = Phonation
Posterior crico-arytenoid: Function
Abducts the vocal fold by rotating the arytenoids
Lateral crico-arytenoid: Function
Adducts the vocal folds
Thyro-arytenoid: Function
Pulls arytenoids forward to relax vocal ligament (shortens vocal ligament); decreases pitch of voice
Aryepiglittoc: Function
Closes opening of larynx
Damage to which nerve will cause hoarseness?
Vagus (a branch of which is recurrent laryngeal)
Lymphatics above vocal fold drain to:
Superior deep cervical nodes
Lymphatics below vocal fold drain to:
Inferior deep cervical nodes