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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Skin Functions (5)
Protection
Temperature Control
Sensory
Excretion/absorption
Make Vitamin D
Epidermis- what four types of cells are included
Epidermis is composed of stratified squamous
-Keratinocytes- 90% (waterproof protein)
-Melanocytes- 8%
-Langerhans cells from bone marrow (immune funtion)
-Merkel Cells (slow twitch)
Keratinocytes
Make Keratin
Melanocytes
Make Melanin
Langerhands cells from bone marrow
Immune Function
Merkel Cells
slow twitch
Layers of keratinocytes
Stratum Corneum- 25-30 layers
Stratum Lucidum- 3-5 layers
Stratum Granulosum- 3-5 Layers
Stratum Spinosum- 8-10 layers
Stratum Basale- 1 cells
Stratum Basale
Dividing cells
Psoriasis
Skin disease- abnormal keratin, keratinocytes move outward faster
Albinism
Skin disorder- no pigment; melanocytes can't make melanin- recessive genetic trait
What effect does smoking have on the skin?
-Narrows blood vesels so less oxygen to skin
-damages collagen and elastin=wrinkles
Basal Cell Carcinoma
78% of skin cancer- from stratum basale, rarely matastasize
Squamous cell carcinoma
20% of skin cancer- from squamous cells
Can be near lesion and can spread
Melanoma
2% of skins cancer- from melanocytes
-Most dangerous form of skin cancer (sun/Mole)
ABCDE of Melanoma
Assymetry
Border
Color
Diameter
Evolving
If a wound is healing and just the epidermis was harmed what type of cells fill in first?
Basal Cells
If a would is healing and it is a deeper wound what kind of cells fill in?
fibroblast (connective cells)
What happens to the rate of epidermal cell replacement as we age?
Slows down
What happens to the amount of collagen in dermis as we age?
Decreases and becomes less flexible
What happens to sebaceous glands as we age?
Become less active causing skin to be dry
What happens to elastic fibers as we age?
Elastic fibers clumps and becomes less flexible
What happens to fat as we age?
Less fat which causes wrinkles, sagging skin, get cold easier
What happens to melanocytes as we age?
Melanocytes decrease which causes paler skin, and less UV protection
What happens to keratinocytes when exposed to the sun?
Keratinocytes can't divide as well
What happens to collagen fibers under sun exposure?
Collagen fibers decrease
1st degree burns
Only epidermis
2nd degree burns
epidermis and some dermis
3rd degree burns
epiderms, dermis and other structures
What are 2 big risk with 3rd degree burns?
Infection and dehydration
A man is in a swimming suit and is lighting a charcoal grill. He squirts much lighter fluid on the carcoals, then throws a match while holding the can, the air saturated and the can explodes. he is burned on his whole anterior surface except for the area below his knees. What percentage of his body is burned?
41.5%
Bacterial diseases of skin-

Staphylococcus
Causes boils, carbuncles, absesses, styes, TSS (toxic shock syndrome) and impetigo (crusty oozing)
-Beta hemolytic
Streptococcus
Causes- impetigo, erysipelas (dry/ scaly skin) "flesh-eating"

-Beta hemolytic
Pseudomonas
Dermatitis, burns

Aerobe and blue/yellow pigment
Propionibacterium acnes
Metabolizes sebum (oil, sebaccous glands), release FFA (Free Fatty Acids), body has inflammatory response
Smallpox
Variola Virus (last case was in 1977)
Measles
Rubeola Virus- MMR
Rubella (German Measles)
Dangerous to fetus
Chicken Pox
Vari cella- virus stays in body and can emerge later as shingles
Warts
Papillomavirus, some cause cancer
Herpes
Herpes Virus 1
Herpes Virus II
Cold Sores- Latent
Tinea Capitis
Ring Worm of the Scalp
Tinea Corporis
Ring Worm of the body
Tinea Pedis
Athletes Foot
Tinea unguium
Ring Worm of the nails
Tinea Cruris
Jock Itch
What are some reasons why there hasn't been a case of smallpox since 1977
Good immunity
Good vaccines
human only
no vectors
no carriers
does not change
not latent
Callus
A growth of new bone tissue in and around a fractured area, ultimately replaced by mature bone, an acquired localized thickening
Cold Sore
A lesion, usually in an oral mucous membrane, caused by Herpes Simplex Virus transmitted by oral or respiratory routes.
Eczema
An inflammation of the skin characterized by patches of red, blistering, dry, extremely itchy skin. It occurs mostly in skin creases in the writs, back of the kneesand fronts of elbows.
Keloid
An elevated irregular darkened area of excess scar tissue caused by collagen formation during healing.
Pruritis
Itching, one of the most common dermatological disorders. It may be caused by skin disorders, systemic disorders, psychogenic factors or allergic reactions.
wart
Mass produced by uncontrolled growth of epithelial skin cells caused by a papillomavirus. Most warts are noncancerous.
Pressure Ulcer
Also known as decubitus ulcers or bedsores.
Caused by a constant deficiency of blood flow to tissues.
Candida Albicans
yeast infection of vagina- Thrush in mouth of babies due to passing through birth canal of infected mother- babies have compromised immune systems
Normal Flora
The microbes typically found in and on the body
Osteoarthritis
Degeneration of bone cartilage, often with age
Osteogenic Sarcoma
Done cancer
Osteomyelitis
Infection of bone, usually Staphylococcus
Osteopenia
Reduced bone mass
Rheumatism
Any painful disorder of bones, muscles,etc.
arthritis
inflammation of joints
Rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmine disease of joints
Gout
Excess uric acid in joints
Myoapthy
Disorder of skeletal muscle
Myasthenia gravis
Autoimmune disease that damages neuromuscular junction
Muscular Dystrophy
Group of muscle destroying diseases
Osteopenia
Sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle
Cramp
Painful spasmodic contraction of muscle
Spasm
involuntary twitching
Tremor
Rhythmic, involuntary, quivering movement