Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/53

Click to flip

53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does asexual reproduction produce?
clones
What is an advantage of sexual reproduction?
it increases genetic diversity
What does cytokinesis result in during telophase II?
four haploid cells
When does crossing- occur?
during prophase I
When does DNA replication occur?
prior to prophase I
During the production of what does cytoplasm divide unequally in meiosis?
production of egg cells
What life cycle would it be if, during an animal's life cycle, the gametes are the only haploid cells?
a diploid life cycle
When is the zygote the only diploid cell?
in the haploid life cycle
Is alternation of generations a type of asexual reproduction?
NO
What kind of reproduction is budding, fragmentation, and fission
asexual reproduction
Does cytokinesis provide new genetic combinations?
No
Does random fertilization, independent assortment, and crossing-over provide new genetic combinations?
Yes
random distribution of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
independent assortment
multicellular, haploid phase in alternation of generations
gametophyte
a method of sexual reproduction in which the body breaks in several pieces?
fragmentation
produces spores in the diploid hase of a plant's life cycle
sporophyte
small cell with very little cytoplasm that is formed during oogenesis and eventually dies
polar body
all copies of the single parent's genes are passed to the offspring
asexual reproduction
portions of a chromatid on one homologous chromosome break off and trade places with the corresponding portion on one of the chromatids of the other homologous chromosome
crossing-over
the process by which gametes are produced in male animals
spermatogenesis
new individuals split off from existing ones
budding
the union of sperm and egg cells to produce a diploid zygote
fertiliaztion
the activities in the life of an organism from one generation to the next
life cycle
haploid reproductive cell of plants
spore
offspring that is generally identical to its parent
clone
female gamete, also called an egg
ovum
the process by which gametes are produced in female animals
oofenesis
homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell
anaphase I
What are gametes produce by in the haploid life cycle?
mitosis or meiosis
What is the zygote produced by?
fusion
How many sperm cells does spermatogenesis produce?
4 sperm cells
This is not part of meiosis, but it increases the number of possible genetic combinations
Random fertilization
What does Asexual reproduction limit?
genetic diviersity
Crossing-over is an efficient way to produce this, which increases genetic diversity?
genetic recombination
What happens when corresponding portions of chromatids on two homologous chromosomes change places?
crossing- over
What is often produced in plants during meiosis? These haploid cells later lead to the production of gametes.
spores
Increased genetic variation will often increase the rate of this.
evolution
a new spindle forms around the chromosomes
prophase II
Chromatids remain attached at their centromeres as the spindle fibers move the homologous chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell
anaphase I
A nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes, the spindle breaks down, and the cytoplasm divides, resulting in four haploid cells.
telophase II
Chromosomes gather at the poles; the cytoplasm divides
telophase I
The nuclear envelope breaks down; genetic material is exchanged through crossing-over.
prophase I
Chromosomes line up at the equator.
metaphase II
Pairs of homologous chromosomes line up at the equator.
metaphase I
Cenromeres divide, enabling the chromatids, now called chromosomes, to move to opposite poles of the cell.
anaphase II
What stage of Meiosis is this?
prophase II
What stage of Meiosis is this?
prophase I
What stage of Meiosis is this?
telophase I and cytokinesis
What stage of Meiosis is this?
telophase II and cytokinesis
What stage of Meiosis is this?
metaphase II
What stage of Meiosis is this?
anaphase I
What stage of Meiosis is this?
metaphase I
What stage of Meiosis is this?
anaphase II