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46 Cards in this Set

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Nagy / Wagner Biology I
Chapter 13
The Theory of Evolution
CUT Apart and STUDY
What are the 4 major points that support evolution?
1. Variation exists within genes of every population or species as a result of random mutation
2. Some individuals of a population or species are better suited to survive and have more offspring.
3. Over time, the traits that make certain individuals of a population better able to survive and reproduce tends to spread within that population.
4. Clear proof from fossils and many other sources that living species evolved from organisms that are extinct.
Why are some individuals or species better suited to survive?
Because of variation
Why do some individuals or species have more offspring?
Natural Selection
What are all of the individuals of a species that live together in one place at one time?
What is the process by which populations change in response to their environment?
natural selection
What is the changing of a species that results in its being better suited to its environment?
What is a condition in which two populations of the same species cannot breed with one another?
What is permanent disappearance of a species?
What are 3 major points that support Darwin and Evolution?
1. Earth is about 4.5 billion years old
2. Organisms have inhabited Earth for most of its history.
3. All organism living today evolved from earlier, simpler life forms.
Who are scientists who study fossils?
Who can determine age of fossils?
What is the calculation of the age of an object by measuring the proportions of radioactive isotopes of certain elements?
Radiometric Dating Method
When using the radiometric dating method, what is measured to determine the age of an object?
measuring the proportions of radioactive isotopes of certain elements
What is the amount of time it takes for one-half of radioactive isotopes to decay?
What is it called when scientists use radiometric dating to put fossils in order- younger than / older than
What does sequencing show?
"orderly patterns"
What is determined by a sequence of amino acids?
What is different between species that share a more recent ancestor?
They have fewer amino acid differences with other species.
What is an example of a protein?
Phylogentic Tree
see page 286 fig 13-10
What can biological molecules contain?
a record of evolution
What do anatomy and development suggest?
common ancestry
What are Vestigial Structures?
bones (or other structures) are present in an organism but are reduced in size and either have no function or a less important function than in other related organisms
What are Homologous Structures?
share a common ancestry
What is an example of a vestigial structure?
hips and shoulders of snakes
What is an example of homologous structures?
penguin, alligator, bat, and human form the same way during "embryonic development"
What are some forms of Evolution?
Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium
What is a method of evolution in which changes occur over a long period of time?
What can gradual change of evolution over time lead to?
species formation that is continuous and constant
What is a method of evolution that has periods of rapid change in species that is separated by periods of little or no change?
Punctuated Equilibrium
What is a method of evolution also known as "fits and starts"
Punctuated Equilibrium
What is the mechanism that drives evolution?
natural selection
What is a well studied example of natural selection?
Industrial Melanism
What is darkening of populations of organisms over time in response to industrial pollution?
Industrial Melanism
What is an example of Industrial Melanism
European Peppered Moth-- dark vs light
5 main elements of Natural Selection
See page 292 and make your own flash card
An example of evolution is the beaks of finches selected by what?
the amount of precipitation
The formation of New Species begins with what kind of changes/
What is the accumulation of differences between groups and leads to the formation of a new species?
What is a process by which new species form?
What is the first step towards speciation?
ecological races
How can population of the same species differ genetically?
Because of adaptations to different living conditions
What is the inability of formerly interbreeding groups to mate or produce fertile offspring?
Reproductive Isolation
Who was the scientist credited with the discovery of the "Theory of Evolution"?
Charles Darwin in 1859
What are 3 reasons for reproductive isolation?
It could be
1. geographical
2. physical
3. behavioral