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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
difficult and labored reathing, often described as shortness fo breath
SOB that begins or increases when pt. lies down, often relieved by propping on pillows
always deep & most often rapid breathing that is associated w/ metabolic acidosis
kussmal breathing
the palpable vibration of the chest wall that results from speech or other verbalizations
tactile fremitus
low-piched, low-intensity breath sounds heard over healthy lung tissue
vesicular breath sounds
moderate pitch & intensity breath sounds heard over major bronchi
bronchovesicular sounds
breath sounds more pronounced during expiration. they are deeper more rumbling, and are more likely to be prolonged, continuous & less discrete
abnormal breathsounds characterized by discrete discontinuous sounds, lasting just a few milliseconds, which are heard mainly during inspiration. May be fine or coarse
contractions of the heart, particularly the ventricles, resulting in forceful flow of blood into both systemic & pulmonary circulation
the time b/n 2 contractions of the heart when the muscles relax & the chambers fill with blood
the point where the apical impulse is most readily seen or felt
point of maximal impulse (PMI)
a heart sound audible with the stethoscope, generated by disruptions in the passage of blood withing the heart of bv's
tricupid & mitral valves. situated b/n atria & ventricles
atrioventricular valves
pulmonic & aortic valves; situated b/n the ventricles & the pulmonary artery & aorta
semilunar valves
the fibroserous membrane covering the heart and roots of the great vessels. fluid is present between the inner and outer layers providing easy, low friction mov't
a sound audible through stethoscop, resulting from rubbing of opposed, inflamed serous surfaces
friction rub
the level @ which the jugular venous pulse is visible when the pt. is lying @ a 30-45 degree angle; gives an indication of right artial pressure
jugular venous pressure/distention
excessive accumulation of fluid in the cells or tissues of the body
an unexpected audible swishing sound or murmur over an artery
the formation or presence of a blood clot w/in a blood vessel or w/in the heart
What are the 8 characteristics of heart mumurs which should be assessed?
Timing/duration; pitch; intensity; pattern; quality; location; radiation; respiratory phase variations
what ht murmurs can you hear best @ the apex?
mitral stenosis, mitral valve prolapse, mitral regurgitation
Where would you listen for pulmonic stenosis or tricuspid stenosis?
pumonic area & tricuspid area, respectively
Where are the various valves located (when viewing pt. anteriorly)?
Tricuspid is on the right ventricle.
Aortic is at the center.
Pulmonic is the top (base)- left atrium.
Mitral is below the pulmonic
What topics from ROS history could you question a patient in order to assess the CV system?
chest pain, fatigue, cough, difficulty breathing, loss of consciousness, diet/nutrition, exercis/lifestyle
what are the thoracic imaginary lines?
anterior axillary, mid-clavicular, midsternal (anteriorly); scapular, vertebral lines, posterior axillary lines (posteriorly); midaxillary line (laterally).
What are the lobes of the lungs?
What are the fissures of the lungs?
Right Horizontal, right & left oblique
What are 5 topics from ROS history about which you could question a pt. in order to assess respiratory system:
SOB, chest pain, coughing, chronic pulmonary disease
What's the outside of the ear called?
What's the top of the auricle?
Below that the helix?
rounded-out flat, inside part of outer ear
the part outside the external auditory meatus?
the part of ear opposite the tragus?
the earlobe is called?
the lobule
What's the bottom of the downward-facing BLM on the TM?
What's the downward-facing BLM on the TM?
What's the top membrane of the TM?
pars flaccida
what's the top part of the y-shaped BLM on the TM?
short process of malleus
what's the BLM that's in the upper left quadrant of the TM?
the junction of incus & stapes
what's the thing that hangs down the back of your throat?
the uvula
the part of nose just inside nostrals?
nasal vestibule
what are the 3 areas above the nasal vestibule in the nasal area?
inferior, middle & superior turbinates
What's the sinus behing the superior turbinate?
sphenoid sinus
What is the sinus anterior to the sphenoid sinus?
Ethmoid sinuses
what're the cheek sinuses called?
maxillary sinus
What is the muscle on top of the eye called in the side-view? on the bottom?
medial rectus muscle- top. Lateral rectus = bottom
What's the outer surface of the iris called?
what's the pit in the retina called?
what's the inner corner of your eye called?
inner canthus
What's the organ b/n your nose & eye?
lacrimal sac
where does the lacrimal sac drain into?
nasolacrimal duct
what's the outer edge of the iris called?
what's the white of the eye called?
what's the gland above the outside edge of the eye?
lacrimal glands
he mucous membrane that lines the inner eyelid and the exposed surface of the eyeball.
What 2 things might you notice in ophthalmoscopic exam of eyes in pt. w/ hypertension?
cotton wools spots & papilledema
What 2 things might you notice in ophthalmoscopic exam of eyes in pt. w/glaucoma?
increased cupping of optic nerve & redness of eye
What 2 things might you notice in ophthalmoscopic exam of eyes in pt. w/ diabetes?
dot hemorrhages or microaneurysms & development of new vessels from retina toward vitreous humor
the axilla, nipples, genital area & ears are the ________ sweat glands
what ar the 2 major layers of the epidermins?
stratum coneum & cellular stratum
what is infection/inflam. of the epiglottis?