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99 Cards in this Set

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Island home of Circe
Aeaea
King of the winds; father of Cretheus
Aeolus
Agamemnon former King of Mycenae, commander at Troy. Was murdered by wife and her lover Aegisthus. Later avenged by his son Orestes.
Agamemnon, Aegisthus, Orestes
Ajax the Great
One of the top warriors in the Trojan war. He was noted more for his strength rather than intellect. He lost the contest for honor of Achilles honor to Odysseus. He then impaled himself with a spear. He refused to talk to Odysseus when he went into the underworld.
Ajax the lesser
He violated Athena by taking the Palladium and possibly raping one of her priestesses Cassandra inside Athena’s temple. He is seen in many paintings dragging Cassandra away as she clings to the palladium. Athena gets her revenge by thrusting one of Zeus's lightning bolts into Ajax’ chest while he sailed away.
Alcinous
King of Phaecians, offers hospitality to Odysseus and safe passage back to Ithaca.
Anticleia
Wife of Laertes, mother of Odysseus
Antinous
An arrogant suitor of Penelope. He leads the campaign to have Telemachus killed and is the first to be killed when Odysseus returns.
Hera’s hundred eyed monster who watches and torments Io the cow until his defeat by Hermes.
Argus
Public beggar that runs errands for food, wrestles Odysseus and loses
Arnaeus or Irus
Athena
Goddess who helps Odysseus; one of the few who is in favor of him. Speaks for him at Olympus. Often appears in disguise as Mentor/Mentes (an old friend of Odysseus).
Autolycus
Son of Hermes, father of Anticleia (Odysseus’s mother)
Calypso
Beautiful nymph who falls in love with Odysseus on island of Ogygia and keeps him there for seven years until Hermes convinces her to let him go.
Cicones
A tribe from the city Ismara. When Odysseus and his men landed there they killed most of the men and kept the women as slaves until the Cicones brought more men and drove Odysseus and what was left of his men back to the sea.
Circe
A beautiful witch goddess, Odysseus becomes her lover after he resists her powers when she turns his crew into swine.
Clytemnestra
Wife of Agamemnon whom she kills on his return from Troy. One of Leda’s daughters along with Helen.
Demodocus
A poet who performs in the court of King Alcinous. He performs during Odysseus’ stay. He brings Odysseus to tears with his tales. This is recognized by the king and queen and asks who he really is.
Elpenor
One of Odysseus’ comrades. He drunkly fell asleep on a roof and fell to his death. In the underworld he begged Odysseus to return and give him a proper burial to which Odysseus agrees.
Eumaeus
Loyal shepherd who helps Odysseus reclaim throne after return. Odysseus appears at his hut as a vagabond, Eumaeus lets him in and gives him food and shelter without knowing it’s him. Lowest of jobs but loves what he does.
solliciter
to solicit
Hermes
The messenger for the gods. He is the liminal god (boundary crosser). Know for his talaria (winged sandals), caduceus (staff) and petasus (winged hat). Sent by Athena to Calypso’s island to tell her that Odysseus must at last be allowed to leave so he can return home.
Hyperion
He is is the sun god father of Helios who owns the Cattle of the Sun that were attacked by Odysseus and his crew
Ino
Daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia. Nursed Dionysus as a baby. An extreme Maenad. Saved Odysseus from being swallowed by Poseidon’s storm in book 5.
Ithaca
Home of Odysseus.
Laertes
Odysseus’s father, he lives at a farm in Ithaca, he regains his spirit when Odysseus returns home and Laertes kills Antinuous’s father.
A group of man eating giants that Odysseus and his men encountered along their journey
Laestrygonians
Lotus flowers
Causes you to forget where you came from and the desire to return home.
Medon
The faithful herald of Odysseus in Homer’s Odyssey. Following the advice of his son Telemachus, Odysseus spares Medon’s life after murdering the suitors who had been plaguing his halls in his homeland of Ithaca. Medon attempts to return the favor by speaking on behalf of his master, claiming that Odysseus' violence was not unwarranted by the gods
Melanthius
Goatherd who supports the suitors and mistreats the beggar (Odysseus) who comes. He is also Melantho’s brother.
Melantho
Maidservant in Odysseus’s palace having an affair with Eurymachus.
Menelaus and Helen
King and Queen of Sparta. Helen’s abduction started the Trojan war. Menelaus helped lead Greeks to Trojan war and offers to help Telemachus find his father.
Mentes
Son of Anchialus, king of the Taphians, whose form Athene habitually adopts as a disguise.
Muses
In Greek mythology, poetry, and literature are the goddesses who inspire the creation of literature and the arts.
Nausicaa
Beautiful daughter of the King and Queen of the Phaecians. Finds Odysseus on beach and gives him oils to wash and clothing - because of Nausicaa Odysseus recieves a warm reception at her parents Palace.
Nestor
King of Pylos, former warrior of Trojan war, Telemachus asks him about his Father Odysseus but he doesn’t know a lot.
Outis/Metis
Meaning “nobody” and “cleverness” a name Odysseus gives himself when he is fighting the cyclops
Penelope
Daughter of Icarius - Wife of Odysseus; Faithful, steadfastly waits for her husband for 20 years.
Phaeacians
People living on the island of Scheria whose king was Alcinuos. Odysseus was shipwrecked here after leaving Calypso's island of Ogygia
Phemius
A bard who entertained the suitors unwillingly is rewarded for his honesty when Telemachus intercedes with Odysseus to spare his and Medon's lives.
Polyphemus
One of the Cyclopes whose island Odysseus comes to soon after leaving Troy. Polyphemus imprisons Odysseus and his crew and tries to eat them, but Odysseus blinds him through a clever ruse and manages to escape. In doing so, however, Odysseus angers Polyphemus's father, Poseidon
Poseidon
God of the sea and land. As the suitors are Odysseus's mortal antagonists, Poseidon is his divine antagonist. He despises Odysseus for blinding his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, and constantly hampers his journey home. Ironically, Poseidon is the patron of the seafaring Phaeacians, who ultimately help to return Odysseus to Ithaca. Because the Phaecians helped Odysseus return home, Poseidon destroys their ship and (at least threatens to) destroy the city.
Scheria
Island where Odysseus ends up after his raft is wrecked. Found by Nausicaa and brought to her father, the king, Alcinous.
Teiresias
A theban prophet of the underworld. Shows Odysseus how to get back and communicate with other souls in Hades.
Son of Odysseus
Telemachus
The Birth of Dionysus
His mother, Semele had an affair with Zeus and she was killed because she asked to see him in his divine glory. instantaneous combustion.. The unborn child was saved by Zeus by sewing the fetus into his thigh.
Thrace/Phrygia (where the myth began)
Depict Dionysus as a new-comer.
Dionysus: God of...
Vegetation - the grape, vine, and wine (embodies the power of living things: animal or vegetable)
The Bacchae of Euripides
A play. Pentheus is an adversary of god and therefore becomes a sacrificial victim. He defies the gods and becomes Dionysus’ victim of sacrifice
Like Pentheus, opponents of Dionysus get shafted
the pirates who abducted him (mastery image)
mistake him for a mortal (homeric hymn to Dionysus 7)
The ensuing events aboard ship offer a splendid picture of Dionysus’ power and majesty and remind us of fundamental elements in the nature of his character:
miracles, bestial transformation, violence to enemies, and pity and salvation for those who understand.
Ariadne and Dionysus
After helping Theseus kill the minotaur, she was left on the island of Naxos where Dionysus found, rescued and married her.
Dionysus ecstatic Spiritual Release through music and dance
Entheos: Possession by god. Sparagmos: rending of animal. Omophagia: a ritual communion; eating of raw flesh. Believed Dionysus was present in the victim. Thiasus: sacred band of the god. Bacchae/bacchantes/maenads: Female: bacchae/maenads, male counterparts: satyrs (part man-part animal, spirits of nature) Thyrsus: wand wreathed with ivy and topped with pinecone
Homeric Hymn to Dionysus 1, 26 tells us
About the God’s nature
Iconography of Athena
Her owl, her aegis, her helmet and spear
Heracles' Iconography
Lion’s skin, club, youthful heroism
The Palladium
Represents Athena’s commemoration of her support for Troy
Aegis
Athena's neck piece, usually bears the Gorgon’s head, a reminiscence of her help for Perseus and an “apotropaic” reminder that she doesn’t like bad guys
Athena and Arachne
. Competition between the goddess and Arachne at Athena’s specialization (weaving). Situation compared to Marsysas, the satyr. Arachne is a weaver of the tapestry who challenges Athena. Arachne is turned into a spider for insulting Athena
The Judgment of Paris
(Athena turned against Troy when Odysseus and Diomedes stole the Palladium. Athena never rejected Heracles) Apple of Discord offered to Aphrodite as Athena and Hera offer their arguments for the reward of the beauty contest, which is the apple. After Paris chose Aphrodite, the train of events afterwards led to the start of the Trojan War. Hera and Athena were hostile towards the Trojans.
Heracles and Athena
Athena nourishes Heracles (the civilizer), who rests from his labors under the shade of a grape arbor. No Athena = No Heracles = No Civilizers = No Civilization
Pallas Athena Tritogeneia
Obscure - associated with her birth at one time goddess of water or the sea after her birth she was reared by Triton. Killed her friend Pallas, Triton’s daughter. Very sad by this, she made a wooden statue after her friend and named it the Palladium. She took upon her the name Pallas Athena after her friend. Pallas means “Maiden”
Character and Appearance of Athena
Glaukopis “grey-eyed” - referring to her radiant glance more so than the color. Patroness of war-like gods and heroes. Power in strategic or tactical warfare. Weaving as a symbol of cunning and human resourcefulness
Cassandra
Priam's daughter. A priestess in Athena's temple. Raped by Ajax while trying to protect the Palladium.
Cadmeia
The founding of thebes. Citadel of Thebes named after Cadmus.
Europa Mastery Image: Rape of Europa by Titian
Girl who is attractive to Zeus and he disguises himself as a bull and takes her hostage. In Crete, Europa became the mother of Minos
Spartoi
Cadmus planted the teeth of a serpent and up sprang men and they started fighting and they came up out of the ground with swords and they fought until 5 were left and of these 5 descended the noble families of Thebes.
The four daughters of Cadmus and Harmonia
Ino, Semele, Autonoe, Agave
Autonoe
Mother of Actaeon
Agave
Mother of Pentheus
Semele
Mother of Dionysus
Ino
Becomes Leucothea (who offers Odysseus a special flotation device)
Pentheus
King of Thebes who banned worship of Dionysus. While spying on the Bacchae frenzy of the women from his kingdom, Dionysus caused them to believe he was an animal, so they torn him to shreds.
Oedipus
The Sphinx was the plague that afflicts Thebes for failing to find the killer of Laius
Oedipus is told he is not the child of Polybus and Merope, king and queen of Corinth.
Consults the Oracle to find truth about his parents
Is told he shall kill his father and marry his mother
Kills random person on the road for cutting him off
later finds out this was Laius, King of Thebes
Helps search for the killer not knowing it was he.
Marries Laius’ wife, Jocasta, who is actually his mother.
Later is exiled because of his own words.
Jocasta kills herself and Oedipus blinds himself.
(Oedipus also solves the riddle of the Sphinx)
Antigone
Daughter of Oedipus. Oedipus had two sons, Polynices and Eteocles, who were vying for the throne and decided to switch off ruling each year. (Oedipus cursed his kids saying they would always be at war with each other) They ended up fighting over it and they kill each other in single conflict. Creon takes over the throne (uncle) Antigone wants to bury Polynices but Creon forbid it (Polynices was the one who was rebelling against the city of Thebes which caused Creon to forbid his burial)
She buries him anyway and Creon wants to bury her alive for it and she ends up killing herself and then her fiance kills himself (Wife’s Son) and Creon’s wife kills herself because her son killed himself.
The Trojan War
Waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband, King Menelaus of Sparta. (Helen was a daughter of Leda, seduced/raped by Zeus as a swan) The wedding of Peleus and Thetis. Agamemnon (Menelaus Brother) and Clytemnestra (Helen’s Sister) took back the throne of Mycenae
Apple of Discord. Aphrodite makes Helen fall in love with Paris who steals her to Troy. Menelaus and his brother, Agamemnon, lead an expedition to Troy and besieged the city for ten years because of Paris’ stealing Helen. Greeks Achilles and Ajax were killed and Trojans Hector and Paris were killed
In class, which event was mentioned to be the start of a series of events leading to the Trojan War?
The sailing of the Argo
What did Ajax tell Odysseus when they spoke in the world of the dead?
Nothing. Ajax refused to speak with Odysseus because he was still mad at him (because Ajax did not win the armor of Achilles).
Who ruled the island of Ogygia?
Calypso
What sort of things does Odysseus use as proof that he is Odysseus?
Scar near his knee from a boar tusk when he was younger. He was able to string the bow and shoot through 12 axe handles. Knowledge of things only he would know such as, the bed can't be moved and telling Laertes of the 13 pear trees, 10 apple trees, 40 fig trees, and 50 rows of vines he had as a child.
Who does Athene disguise herself as when traveling with Telemachus to Pylos?
Mentor
Name 5 important characters from the Trojan War and describe their role
1. Achilles - One of the best fighters of the Trojan War. He went even though his mother prophesied of his imposing doom if he were to go.
2. Odysseus - Achilles trusted him. He led the Ithaca fighters. Most valuable asset: his wit - main character of the Odyssey.
3. Agamemnon - The leader of the Greeks. Stole Bresis from Achilles, which made Achilles rebel, which in return, causes many unnecessary deaths.
4. Helen - Wife of Menelaus before Paris won her heart and took her to Troy (promised to Paris by Aphrodite)
5. Paris - Prince of Troy. A favorite of Aphrodite, which is the only reason that he was saved from the sword of Menelaus.
What is the difference between Mentes and Mentor and what role do they play in the Oddyssey?
Athena disguises herself as both of these men. In the first chapter of the Oddyssey Telemachus talks about the suitor problem, thinking that he is talking to Mentes who is the son of Anchialos and an old family friend of Odysseus. Athena in Mentes form urges Telemachus to try and remove the suitors.
When interacting with Telemachus and Oddyseus, Athena also often disguises herself as Mentor who is a good friend of Odysseus that was put in charge of looking after Telemachus and the palace when Odysseus left for the Trojan war.
At what point does Penelope truly realize that Odysseus is her husband?
When he tells her about the tree, and also another challenge
What main roles did Athena play in the Odyssey?
She...
Prompts Odysseus
Teaches Telemachus
Represents Zeus
Fosters Penelope
Punishes the suitors
Why did Odysseus have to go to Hades?
Circe instructed him to go so he could converse with Teiresias to see about how to return to Ithaca.
In what form does Athena first take when she approaches Odysseus on Ithaca?
A young shepherd.
Which god guided Paris' arrow to fatally wound Achilles in the heel?
Apollo.
When Telemachus is leaving Menelaus in Sparta, they see an eagle carrying a goose. What does Helen say is the interpretation of this "sign?"
That Odysseus will come back home and be avenged or that he is already home, "sowing for all the suitors the seeds of doom"
How long had the suitors been destroying Odyssey's estate?
3 years, going on 4. We know because that is how long Penelope weaves the shroud of Laertes before getting caught, and also because Athena tells Odysseus when he arrives in Ithaca.
Penelope’s name refers to her role as...
A virtuous wife AND a bobbin alluding to her weaving abilities
In Sparta, Helen and Menelaus give Telemachus...
A robe she wove herself. She says it is for him to give to his future bride. Menelaus gives him a cup
Homer addresses only one character directly and that is...
Eumaeus the noble swineherd. He is the opposite of Melanthius the mean goatherd and a foil to the suitors. He is a faithful servant of Odysseus.
In Penelope’s archery contest, through how many axes must Odysseus fire his arrow?
12
In about what year was the Odyssey composed?
700 BC
Who does Zeus send to rescue Odysseus from Calypso?
Hermes
How long does Odysseus spend on Calypso’s island?
7 years
Why does victory turn to disaster for Odysseus and his men in the episode of the Ciconians?
Odysseus and his men storm the shores of Ismara and defeat most of the men keeping the women for themselves, but the Ciconians come with reinforcements and kill enough of Odysseus' men that he and what is left of his crew are forced to leave.
Who is Mentes?
Mentes is the form taken by Athena when she comes to Ithaca to guide and train Telemachus after a discussion among the gods decides to help Odysseus finally return home. Mentes, also called Mentor (from which the modern word "mentor" derives) claims to be the son of Antilochus and the king of the Taphian oarsmen. (I.181-2) Mentes encourages Telemachus to rid the house of the suitors and gives him advice about his father (putting "fresh eagerness in his heart", I.91). Telemachus treats Mentes kindly and follows the guidelines of xenia (guest-host friendship), and at the conclusion of Mentes' first visit sees Athena depart "like a bird" and realizes that Mentes was a god.
Who was the one man left behind from the Greek fleet who convinced the Trojans that the wooden horse was safe and would bring luck to them?
Sinon
The king of the Phaecians and father of Nausicaa was
Alcinous