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35 Cards in this Set

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-part human,part horse
-dwell in mountains of Thessaly
-offspring of Ixion and Nephele
- aka Ixionidae
- Known for fight at Lapithae in which they tried to carry off Hippodamia on the day of her marriage to Peirithous but driven off by Theseus
Individual Centaurs
Pholus - wise and kind to Heracles, showed him hospitality. Opened a bottle of wine which set off the other centaurs and caused them to attack Heracles and Pholus
Chiron- teacher of Achilles, killed by Heracles by accidentduring the third labour when he came to see what the commotion was about
Nessus- carried fo Deianira, bride of Heracles
- half man and half bull
- dwelt in the labyrinth, contructed by Minos of crete and designed by Daedalus
-eventually killed by Theseus
- aka Asterius of Asterion

Before Minos became king, he asked the Greek god Poseidon for a sign, to assure him that he, and not his brother, was to receive the throne. Poseidon agreed to send a white bull on condition Minos would sacrifice the bull back to the god. Indeed a bull of unmatched beauty came out of the sea. King Minos, after seeing it, instead sacrificed another bull, hoping that Poseidon would not notice. Poseidon was very angry when he realised what had been done so he caused Minos's wife Pasiphae to be overcome with a fit of madness in which she fell in love with the bull. Pasiphae went to Daedalus for assistance, and Daedalus devised a way for her to satisfy her passions. He constructed a hollow wooden cow covered with cowhide for Pasiphae to hide in and allow the bull to mount her. The result of this union was the Minotaur. In some accounts, the white bull went on to become the Cretan Bull captured by Heracles for one of his labours.

The Minotaur had the body of a man and the head and tail of a bull. It was a fierce creature, and Minos, after getting advice from the Oracle at Delphi, had Daedalus construct a gigantic labyrinth to hold the Minotaur. It was located under Minos' palace in Knossos.
Now it happened that Androgeus, son of Minos, had been killed by the Athenians, who were jealous of the victories he had won at the Panathenaic festival. To avenge the death of his son, Minos waged war and won. He then demanded that seven Athenian youths and seven maidens be sent every ninth year to be devoured by the Minotaur. When the third sacrifice came round, Theseus volunteered to go to slay the monster. Ariadne, Minos' daughter, fell in love with Theseus and helped him get out of the maze by giving him a ball of thread, allowing him to retrace his path. Theseus killed the Minotaur (with a magical sword Ariadne had given him) and led the other Athenians back out the labyrinth.
-half man and half beast/nature spirits
-companions of Pan and Dionysus
-aka mountain nymphs and Kuretes
-strongly connected with cult of Dionysus
-males followers of Dionysus are known as this
-have small goat horns on head
-love wine and women and roam to the music of pipes, dacing with nymphs or trying to capture them
- Sikinnis is their special form of dance
-have wreathes of vine or ivy
- they DO grow old and are NOT immortal
- older satyrs were called Sileni and the younger Satyrisci
-symbol the hare
-roman satyrs
- spirits of the woodlands
-pictured with larger horns
-associated with Pan's attendents, the Panes.
-half horse and half human
-looked mostly human but had legs, tail and ears of a horse
- Sileni were the Ipotanes who were followers fo Dionysus, who was often drunk and had to be carried away by these creatures and often equated with the Roman Silvanus
-sisters of Iris
-daughters of Electra and Thaumas
-winged hags with sharp bird talons
- abducted and tortured people on their way to Tartarus
- lived on Strophades
- helped Zeus punish Phineas when he revealed too much. After Iris made a request to Jason, he drove away the harpies from Phineas by sending the Boreads
- Aeneas also encountered them
Groups of Harpies
- Calais and Zetes, sons of Boreas and Oreithyia, the daugther of King Erechtheus of Athens
-winged heroes
- Part of the Argonauts
- born to Typhon and Echidna
-body of goat, hind of snake and head of lion
-gave birth to Sphinx and Nemean lion by Orthos
-defeated by Bellephron at the command of King Lobates of Lycia when he ran her through with a spear
member of the giants with a single eye in the middle of their heads
First generation of Cyclops
- Brontes, Steropes and Argos
- children of Uranus and Gaia
- Uranus feared their strength and locked them in Tartarus
- Cribys freed these Cyclops and helped him overthrow Uranus vut put them back in Tartarus until freed by Zeus
- they were later killed by Apollo when they killed his son Asclepius
Second generation of Cyclops
- resided on Cyclops the island
- includes Polythemus, son of Poseidon and Thoosa, of the famous Odyssey.
- also includes Telemus, son of Eurymus who warned Polythemus he would lose to Odysseus
-daughters of Atlas and Pleione
-sisters fo Calypso, Hyas, the Hyades, and the Hesperides
- nymphs in the train of Artemis
-Pursued by Orion, Zeus turned them into doves and then stars
- some versions say they killed themselves and then became stars

Celaeno- mother of Lycus by Poseidon
Alcyone- mother of Hyrieus by Lycus
Electra- mother of Dardanus by Zeus
Maia- the eldest of the Pleides, mother to Hermes by Zeus
Taygete- mother of Lacedaemon by Zeus
- were Naiads, or sea nymphs
- lived on Sirenum scopuli, surrounded by rocks and cliffs
- sailors were drawn to their singing, causing them to saild into the cliffs and drown
- daughters of Acheolus or Phorcys
- Odysseus escaped them by having all his sailors plug their ears and tying him to a pole aftered being warned about their charm
- Orpheus died to music on his journey with Jason
- a large class of female nature spirits bound to certain locations
- often pursued by satyrs
- often associated with Artemis, Apollo, Dionysus, Pan, and Hermes as the god of Shepherds
Types of nymphs:
Land Nymphs
Alseids- lands, groves
Auloniads- pastures
dryads- forests
Melias- manna-ash trees
Oreads-mountains, grottoes
Napaeae- mountain valleys, glens

Water Nymphs
Oceanids- daughters of Oceanus
Nereids- daughters of Neresus, Med. Sea
Naiads- usually fresh waters
Corcian Nymphs- Classical muses
-Nine goddesses who embody the evocation fo myth
- eater nymphs associated with springs of Helicon and Pieris
- Appollo known as their leader
- they are daughters of Zeus adn Mnemosyne
The nine muses are:
Euterpe- music
Calliope- epic poetry
Clio- history
Erato- love poetry
Melponene- tragedy
Polyhymnia- sacred poetry
Terpsichore- dancing
Thalia- comedy
Urania- astronomy
godesses of the springs, wells, and fountains often associated with the muses
-series of gods who oppose Zeus and the olympian powers in their ascent to power
- written about in Theogeny and played prominent roles in Orpheus's poems
- born to Rhea and Cronus, who eats them all except Zeus, fearing that they will overthrow him
- Zeus frees his brothers and sisters when he is an adult, but then they fight, Zeus eventually wins and throws the titans into Tartarus

The twelve titans are:
Oceanus (Ocean) and Thethys (sister and wife of Oceanus, mother of Oceanids)
Hyperion (son god, Helios Hyperion) and Theia ( sister and wife of Hyperion, mother of Helios, Selens and Eos)
Coeus (intelligence) and Phoebe (mother of Leto and Asteria, recieved control of the Oracle at Delphi from Thetis)
Rhea (daughter of Uranus and Gaia, wife of Cronus,mother ot Demeter, Hades, Hestia, Posiedon, and Zeus, associated with Cyble)
Mnemosyne (memory, mother of Muses by Zeus)
Metis (wisdom, first spouse of Zeus, mother of Athena)
Themis ( godess of oaths, mother of Seasons, Fares, and Prometheus)
Crius (father of Pallas)
Iapetus (father of other titans)
Sons of Iapetus
Atlas (bearer of the world)
Prometheus(foresight, gave fire to man)
Epimetheus (hindsight, gave positive trait to every animal except man)
Menoetius(a shepherd of Hates)
twelve olympians
Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, and ArtemisHestia, Demeter, Dionysus, and Hades are the variable gods among the Twelve. Hestia gave up her position as an Olympian to Dionysus in order to live among mankind (eventually she was assigned the role of tending the fire on Mount Olympus). Demeter was allowed to leave Olympus six months of the year to be with her daughter, Persephone in Hades (causing winter). And, although Hades was always one of the principal Greek gods, his home in the underworld of the dead made his connection to the Olympians more tenuous.

The Olympians gained their supremacy in the world of gods after Zeus led his siblings to victory in war with the Titans; Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Hestia, and Hades were siblings
they ("terrible" or, according to some, "loud-roaring") were vicious female monsters with sharp fangs and hair of living, venomous snakes.

They are sometimes depicted as having wings of gold, brazen claws, and the tusks of boars. According to the myths, seeing the face of a Gorgon turned the viewer to stone. Homer speaks of only one Gorgon, whose head is represented in the Iliad as fixed in the centre of the aegis of Zeus. In the Odyssey, she is a monster of the underworld. Hesiod increases the number of them to three -- Stheno (the mighty), Euryale (the far-springer) and Medusa (the queen), and makes them the daughters of the sea-god Phorcys and of Keto.
Eumenides or Furies
They were usually said to have been born from the blood of Uranus that fell upon Gaia when Cronus castrated him; i.e., they were chthonic (earth) deities. According to a variant account, they were born from Nyx. Their number is usually left indeterminate, though Virgil, probably working from an Alexandrian source, recognized three; Alecto ("unceasing"), Megaera ("grudging"), and Tisiphone ("avenging murder"). The heads of the Erinyes were wreathed with serpents, their eyes dripped with blood, and their whole appearance was terrific and appalling. Sometimes they had the wings of a bat or bird, or the body of a dog.
The fates
the white-robed Moirae or Moerae (the "Apportioners" were the personifications of destiny (Roman equivalent: Parcae, "sparing ones") They controlled the metaphorical thread of life of every mortal and immortal from birth to death (and beyond). Even the gods feared the Moirae. Zeus himself may be subject to their power, as the Pythian priestess at Delphi once admitted. The Greek word moira literally means a part or portion, and by extension one's portion in life or destiny.

The three Moirae were:
-Clotho ("spinner") spun the thread of life from her distaff onto her spindle. Her Roman equivalent was Nona, "the Ninth," who was originally a goddess called upon in the ninth month of pregnancy.
-Lachesis ("alotter" or drawer of lots) measured the thread of life with her rod. Her Roman equivalent was Decima (the 'Tenth').
-Atropos ( "inexorable" or "inevitable", sometimes called Aisa) was the cutter of the thread of life. She chose the manner of a person's death. When she cut the thread with "her abhorred shears", someone on earth died. Her Roman equivalent was Morta ('Death').
The Moirae were supposed to appear three nights after a child's birth to determine the course of its life.

The Greeks variously claimed that they were the daughters of Zeus and the Titanness Themis.
The graces
-They were the daughters of Zeus and Eurynome
-aka Charites
- included Aglaea, the youngest, Euphrosyne and Thalia
-The Charites were the goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity and fertility. They were great lovers of beauty and gave humans talents in the arts, closely associated with the Muses. The Charites were associated with the underworld and the Eleusinian Mysteries.
-The river Cephissus near Delphi was sacred to them.
-a sea monster, daughter of Poseidon and Gaia (mythology), who swallows huge amounts of water three times a day and then spouts it back out again, forming an enormous whirlpool
- Argonauts avoided her
was originally a beautiful nymph. She scorned her many suitors and chose to live among the Nereids instead, until one day Glaucus saw and fell in love with her. Glaucus was a mortal fisherman who had previously been transformed by chewing a plant, gaining the form of a fish from his waist down. When Glaucus declared her love to the sea nymph but she fled, taking him for a monster. Glaucus sought the help of Circe, hoping that this witch could make the nymph love him with her herbs, but Circe fell in love with Glaucus herself and asked him to forget the other girl. Glaucus rejected her request, declaring that his love for for her was eternal.

Circe was enraged by Glaucus's refusal, and turned her anger on the girl whom he loved. She went and poisoned the water which the sea nymph used to bathe with her magical herbs. When she waded into the water, the submerged half of her body was transformed into a combination of fish joined with six ferocious dogs' heads sprouting from around her waist. The dogs attacked and devoured anyone who came near, beyond her ability to control, and the girl fled to the shore of the strait to live there alone.

It is said that by the time Aeneas's fleet came through the strait after the fall of Troy, she had been changed into a dangerous rock outcropping which still stands there to this day.
-daughter of the Chimaera and Orthrus, according to others of Typhon and Echidna. She was represented most often seated upright rather than recumbent, as a winged lion with a woman's head; or she was a woman with the paws, claws and breasts of a lion, a serpent's tail and birdlike wings. Hera or Ares sent her from her Ethiopian homeland to sit outside Thebes and ask all passersby history's most famous riddle: "Which creature in the morning goes on four feet, at noon on two, and in the evening upon three?" She strangled anyone who couldn't answer. Oedipus solved the riddle: man, crawls on all fours as a baby then walks on two feet as an adult, and walks with a cane in old age. The she then threw herself from her high rock and died.
-was the final son of Gaia, this time with Tartarus, the offspring of the Earth and the cavernous void beneath
The Winds
Aeolus- keeper of the winds, son of King Hippotes
Zephrus- North Wind
Boreas-West Wind
Notus- South Wind
Eurus- East wind (brought warmth and rain)
-pygmies were a tribe of twenty-seven inch (2 feet, 3 inch) tall men in India who warred with cranes.
- a monster with the body of a lion, the head and wings of an eagle, and back covered with feathers.
- it builds its nest, and instead of an egg lays an agate therein.
-India was assigned as their native country
-They found gold in the mountains and built their nests of it, for which reason their nests were very tempting to the hunters, and they were forced to keep vigilant guard over them.
-is a monstrous creature made of the parts of multiple animals and blows fire
-It made great havoc in Lycia, so that the king Iobates, sought for some hero to destroy it.
- defeated by Bellephron and Pegasus