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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the 3 main classifications of Muscle Tissue
1. Skeletal Muscle
2. Smooth Muscle
3. Cardiac Muscle
Identify the Muscle Tissue:
A. Voluntary
B. Striated
C. Attached to Skeleton
D. Contracts quickly in response to stimulation of nerve impulses
E. Act in opposing groups- some relaxing while others are contracting.
Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle
Identify the Muscle Tissue:
A. Involuntary - Fu organs all have this.
B. Found in Viscera - stomach, intestines, blood vessels
C. Non-Striated. Cells are spindle shaped
D. Contracts slowly on impulse.
Characteristics of Smooth Muscle Tissue
Identify the Muscle Tissue:
A. Involuntary
B. Heart Muscle
C. Partially Striated
D. Contracts at moderate speed
Characteristics of Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Four Major Functions of the Muscles:
1. Assist in movement
2. Produce heat & energy
3. Maintain balance & posture
4. Protect internal organs
Muscles are contained in ______ which is continuous w/ the fibrous structures that attach muscles to the bones or other structures.
Epimysium - a.k.a. Fascia
Muscles must be firmly attached to structures upon which they pull during contraction.
Muscles may attach directly to the ______ of bones or may be attached by _______ or an ______.
1. periosteum
2. tendons
3. aponeurosis
When the epimysium extends in the form of a strong, tough cord of connective tissue which is continuous w/ w/ the periosteum of the bone, it is called a ___________.
When the epimysium extends as a broad, flat sheet of connective tissue & attaches to the adjacent structures, it is known as an _________.
3 main parts of a muscle:
1. Origin
2. Body or Belly
3. Insertion
3 Characteristic of the muscle origin:
1. The less movable end of the muscle.
2. Attached to the less movable end of a bone.
3. Usually the end of the muscle closer to the trunk.
The main part of the muscle.
Body or Belly
The muscle attachment on the more movable bone or on the end farther away from the trunk.
Muscle Insertion
The ability of muscle tissue to respond to stimuli.
The ability of a muscle to transmit impulses.
The ability of a muscle to lengthen or stretch & hold.
The ability of a muscle to resume former length after a stretching force has been applied to the muscle and then removed.
Muscle Elasticity
The ability of a muscle to contract or shorten & to thicken when a muscle shortens.
There is always an ambient tension in the muscle. Even then it is resting. It is a state of readiness to act more easily & quickly when needed.
Tone or Tonus
Continued active use of a muscle causes it to increase in size or ________.
Which muscles move body parts away from another part or away from the mid-line?
Which muscles move a body part toward another part or toward the mid-line?
Which muscles lift a part? e.g. elevating the scapula.
e.g. Levator Scapuli
Muscles that extend a joint & straighten a joint.
Muscles that revolve a part on its axis.
e.g. rotator cuff muscles
Muscles that make a part more rigid - or that tense a part.
Tensor Muscles
Muscles that turn the palm upwards.
Supinator Muscles
Muscles that turn the palm downwards.
Pronator Muscles
Ring-like muscles that close body openings.
Sphincter Muscles
What are the 2 causes of contraction for skeletal muscles?
1. Response to natural stimulus from a motor nerve.
2. Response to artificial stimulus such as an electrical current.
Muscles move the body by pulling on the bones. This is known as ________.
Muscles that move a body part usually lie (proximal / distal) to the part that they are moving.
Body movements are coordinated by the action of muscle _________. Any movement is produces by the coordinated actions of _______ muscles.
1. pairs
2. several
Muscles act in groups. Some of the muscles _______ while others _________.
1. contract
2. relax
From where to muscles cells get their energy to contract?
Simple Sugars - Glucose
Neck muscles assist in...
moving the head from side to side
flexion of the neck
extension of the neck
rotation of the neck
Back muscles assist in...
Large broad muscles of the back allow the body to bend, turn, & stand erect.
Chest muscles assist in...
movements of neck, arms, and trunk
Abdomen muscles assist in...
broad muscles of the anterior trunk
assist in:
elimination of waste from large intestine & bladder.
Located in the floor of the pelvic cavity, these muscles assist in defecation & urination.
Perineal muscles
Orbicularis Oris
Orbicularis Oculi
Muscles of the head
Muscles of the Neck
Biceps Brachii
Triceps Brachii
Muscles of the upper arm and upper part of the forearm
Pectoralis Major
Serratus Anterior
External Intercostals
Internal Intercostals
Muscles of the chest
Latissimus Dorsi
Muscles of the back
External Obliques
Internal Obliques
Transverse Abdominis
Rectus Abdominis
Muscles of the abdomen
The muscle of respiration....
Levator Ani
Muscles of the Pelvic Floor
Gluteus Maximus
Gluteus Minimus
Muscles of the Lower Extremities
Quadriceps Femoris
Ham Strings
Muscles of the Thigh
Quadriceps Femoris is composed of ...
Vastus Lateralis
Vastus Medialis
Vastus Intermedius
Rectus Femoris
How many muscles make up the adductors?
The muscles of the ham strings are...
Biceps Femoris
Tibialis Anterior
Peronius Longus (Fibularis Longus)
Muscles of the lower extremities
Extensors and Flexors
Muscles of the forearm
Extensors are posterior
Flexors are anterior
Flexor Digitorum
Extensor Digitorum
Muscles of the Foot
Flexor - flexes the toes
Extensor - extends the toes
The large tendon @ the lower end of the gastrocnemius muscles, which is inserted into the ankle, is the strongest & thickest tendon in the body. It is the _____.
Calcaneal Tendon
(Achilles Tendon)
Muscles that bend a body part are known as:
a. extensors
b. flexors
c. prime movers
d antagonists
Muscles that extend a body part are called:
a. extensors
b. flexors
c. prime movers
d antagonists
The movement required in walking is the results of:
a. The relaxation of smooth muscles.
b. Energy produced by the cardiac muscle.
c. The contraction & relaxation of skeletal muscles.
d. food burned by the skeletal muscles
The contraction & relaxation of skeletal muscles.
In cold weather, the brain stimulates the skeletal muscles to produce more heat by causing us to ________.
Muscle cells get their energy to contract from the oxidation of _________.
The muscular structure which forms the floor of the pelvis is called the ______.
a. peritoneum
b. parietal muscle
c. mons pubis
d. perineum
Muscles help the veins with the upward movement of blood when they:
a. atrophy
b. contract
c. hypertrophy
d. stimulate the nerve endings
The large calf muscle is called the:

a. quadriceps
b. deltoid
c. triceps
d. gastrocnemius
The large dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic & abdominal cavities is called:
a. peritoneal fold
b. diaphragm
c. intercostal muscle
d. inter-thoracic muscle
When muscles have good tone they are:

a. completely relaxed & flaccid
b. always in a state of partial contraction
c. smaller than normal
d. permanently contracted
always in a state of partial contraction
As one muscle contracts the antagonist must:

a. also contract
b. relax
c. produce energy
d. flex
Bundles of fibers which are held together by connective tissues are:

a. cartilage
b. ligaments
c. bursae
d. muscles
Muscles are attached to bones by:

a. ligaments
b. bursae
c. tendons
d. periosteum
Type of muscle found in the deltoid muscle:

a. Voluntary
b. Involuntary
c. cardiac
d. Smooth
Which muscles do you contract when you flex your arm?

a. trapezius
b. triceps
c. pectoral
d. biceps
Which muscles do you relax when you flex your arm?

a. trapezius
b. triceps
c. pectoral
d. biceps