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259 Cards in this Set

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Acropetal
-spores are produced in a chain where the youngest spores is at the tip of the chain
Aecio
-prefix meaning cup
Aecium
-in rust fungi, a cuplike structure in which aeciospores are produced
Aeciospore
-a binucleate (dikaryotic) spore of rust fungi
Aflatoxin
-highly toxic substance produced by the Aspergillus fungus
Anamorph
-nonsexual (usually conidial) stage in a fungal life cycle (secual stage is the teleomorph)
Anastomosis
-hyphal fusion
Aneuploid
-condition in which an abnormal number of chromosomes is present in a cell
Annulus
-the 'ring'; a band of tissue encircling the stem of a mushroom (eg: commercial button mushrooms), sometimes movable
Antheridium
-a sperm producing structure
Apex
-tip
Apical
-at the tip (opposite of basal - at the base)
Apo
-prefix meaning open
Apothecium
-open disk like ascoma
Appressorium
-a flat swelling that forms on the end of a germ tube which adheres to the surface of the host before penetrating it
Arbuscule
-hyphae with a shrubby appearance which mycorrhizal fungi form inside root cells of the associated plant
Areole
- a portion of a lichen thallus separated from other areoles by cracks
Arthropods
-animals with exoskeletons, such as insects, spiders and crabs
Arthrospore
-a conidium formed from restructuring the walls of a septate hypha, so that it breaks into separate segments (hyphal fragmentation) eg Geotrichum
Asco
-prefix meaning sack
Ascocarp
-ascus bearing structure of an ascomycete
Ascoma (ta)
-ascus bearing structure of an ascomycete
Ascogenous hyphae
-hyphae containing paired haploid male and female nucle, that eventually give rise to asci
Ascogonium
-female gametangium of the ascomycetes
Ascospore
-spore produced within an ascus
Ascus
-sack like structure containing the sexual spores of ascomycetes
Auto
-prefix meaning self
Axenic
-a culture that contains only one species and is free of any other living organism
-pure culture
Ballisto
-prefix meaning throw
Ballistospore
-sexual spore formed externally on a basidium
Basidium
-structure producing the seual spores of basidiomycetes. 2 major kinds, distinguished by lacking (HOLOBASIDIA) or having (HETEROBASIDIA) septa.
Basipetal
-spores produced in a chain where the youngest spore is at the base of the chain
Bitunicate
-a type of ascus in which the wall has two functional layers, the inner membrane protrudes through the external membrane during spore release (compare with unitunicate)
Blastic development
-formation of a conidium by enlargement/maturation of a newly formed conidiogenous cell, before isolation by a septum. eg: phialides/phialospores
Blastospore
-a spore which has been budded off, as in yeast
Budding
-a process of multiplication in yeasts or sprores where there is development of a new cell (or spore) from a small outrowth
Cap
-the expanded, upper part of the mushroom
Cap trama
-interwoven sterile hyphae of a mushroom cap
Capillitium
-a mass of sterile fibres found in the interior of many spore bearing structures that appears to have an important function in spore disposal
Central
-describing mushrooms
-with stem attched at the centre of the cap
Cephalodium
-a small globose body that contains an alga different from that present in the majority of a lichen thallus
-function is to fix nitrogen
-found in upper cortex or medulla
Chlamydospore
-a thick walled spore produced by thallic development. Often pigmented
Chitin
-a tough, nitrogen containing polysaccharide forming the cell walls of certain fungi
Chitridio
-prefix meaning little pot
Circinate
-twisted round, coiled
Clamp connection
-in Basidiomycota, a lateral connection between adjacent cells of a hypha
Cleisto
-prefix meaning closed
Cleistothecium
-a closed, spherical ascoma
Columella(-ae)
-a sterile column of hyphae within a spore bearing structure, often extending a supporting stalk. Sterile central axis in a mature fruit body. Typical of zygomycete sporangia
Coenocytic
-an organism containing multiple nuclei not separate by cell walls
Conidium(-ia)
-asexually formed spore(s); a relatively thin walled asecual spore that is terminal on the conidiophore, and deciduous (falls off) at maturity
Conidiogenous cells
-cells that directly produce conidia, such as phialides
Conidiophore
-simple or branched hypha (a fertile hypha) bearing conidiogenous cells
Convex
-somewhat the shape of a half sphere, regularly rounded on top
Coprophilous
-living on shit
Copulation zone
-area on a culture plate where sexual fusion occurs
Cortex
-the outer layer of any organ or structure
Corti
-prefix meaning bark
Corticolous
-living on the bark of shrubs and trees
Crozier
-a structure with a hooked end
-eg: as in ascomycetes
Crustose
-flat crust like lichen thallus with no lower cortex that adheres closely to the substratum
Cylindrical
-having the shape of a cylinder
Cyphella
-small aerated opening found on the lower surface of the majority of lichens
Cystidium
-a large, sterile cell that grows amoung the basidia often projecting beyond the hymenium
-usually plays a supportive role
Decomposer
-organisms that break down organic material
Dendroid
-treelike in form
Dentate
-toothed
Detritus
-loose natural material resulting from the disintegration of rocks or organisms
-organic garbage
Deuteromycete
-fungi whose life cycle is largely or exclusively asexual, reproducing by conidia
-typically when the secual stage is known, these are then known as ASCOMYCETES
Dichotomous
-divided into 2
Dikaryotic
-having pairs of nuclei within cells
Discharge papilla
-exit pore for gametes in Allomyces gametangia
Dung
-shit
Eccentric
-not attached to the center
Ectoplasm
-outer gel like layer of cytoplasm that lies immediately beneath the plasma membrane
Ellipsoid
-elliptical, with both ends similar (see ovoid)
Encyst
-to become dormant and form a protective coating or cst
Endoparasitic
-organism that lives inside the body of another organism and benfits from the relationship at the expense of the host
Endoplasm
-the inner layer of cytoplasm within which are embedded cell organelles
Ergot
-term aplied to the disease of cereals caused by Claviceps spp.
Eu
-prefix meaning true
Facultative parasite
-an organism that has the ability to live on another living organism, or on dead organic material, depending upon the circumstances
Fertile
-able to produce spores
Fertilization tube
-a tube that originates from the antheridium aiding in the transfer of the male gametic nucleus
Filiform
-threadlike
Flagellum(whiplash and tinsel)
-the motile apparatus of oomycetes and chtridiomycetes, containing a microtubular axoneme
-whiplash flagella (Oo & Chytrid) are smooth, and posterior to the direction of zoospore motion
-tinsel type flagella (Oo) are covered with mastigonemes and are anterior to the direction of zoospore motion
Fleshy
-rather soft and spongy; often describing mushroom caps
Foliose
-type of lichen thallu made up of small leaf like lobes that extend in a circular pattern from a center of growth; possess both upper and lower cortex
Foot cell
-hyphal cell that supports a sporogenous cell
Form genous
-an artificial taxon given to a group of organisms based on structure or other characteristics when the true taxonomy has not been determined
Fragile
-easily broken
Fruticose
-a lichen thallus that is attached to the substrate by a single point, develops branches and becomes shrub like
-radially symmetrical surrounded by a cortex
Funicular
-being aggregated into little cords or bundles
Furcate
-forked
Fusiform
-spindle shaped, narrowing at each end
Gametangium
-sexual organ that contains gametes
Gamy
-prefix of suffix meaning fusion/union
Gelatinous
-the consistency of jelly
Germ pore
-special region of the spore from wich germination occurs, often appearing as a circle on the spore wall
Germ sporangium
-sporeangium which originates by the germination of an oospore
Germ tube
-short hypha that sprouts from the germ pore of a spore during germination
Gills
-blade like structures on the underside of mushroom caps in the Agaricales
Globose
-spherical or nearly so
Grex
-aggregation plasmodium
Haustorium
-an absorbant organ that originates from the hypha of a parasitic fungus
Hetero
-prefix meaning other
Heterobasidium
-septate basidium characteristic of rusts and smuts (the Teliomycetes)
Heteroecious
-parasitic fungus that completes part of its life cycle on one host and the other portion on a different species of host
Heterokaryosis
-genetically different nuclei associated in the same cell
Heterokont
-organisms with flagella of different length
Heterotroph
-organism that feeds on organic materials of other plants and animals
Heteromerous
-having a layered thallus (lichens)
Heterothallism
-self sterility
Hilum
-a scar indicating a point of attachment
Holobasidium
-basidium typically lacking septa with synchronous spore maturation; characteristic of mushrooms
Homo
-prefix meaning same
Homokaryotic
-a cell that has genetically similar nuclei
Homoimerous
-of a lichen thallus, having the fungal and algal components intermixed throughout
Homothallism
-self fertility
Hyaline
-devoid of colour
Hydrophobins
-molecules that repel water
Hymenium
-fertile layer of a sporocarp, for example on ascomata and basidiomata
Hymenophore
-part of the fungus on which the hymenium is borne
Hypertrophy
-abnormal increase in the size of cells
Hypha
-tubular filaments that represent the structural entity in the majority of the fungi
Hypothallus
-undifferentiated or marginal hyphal (fungal) outgrowth, in lichens
Hypothecium
-thin upper layer of the apothecial tissue on which the asci rest
Inner veil
-protective tissue layer covering the gills in mushrooms
-will break at maturity leaving he annulus on the stipe
Intercalary
-between base and apex
Isidium
-a microscopic outgrowth formed on the upper surface of the lichen thalli that serves to vegetatively propagate the species
Isomorphic
-organs or structures similar in shape
Karyo
-prefix meaning nucleus
Karyogamy
-fusion of 2 nuclei to form the zygote nucleus
Lamella(ae)
-a singl leaf (or leaves) of a gill in mushrooms
Lignicolous
-growing on wood
Lirella
-linear apothecium of lichens
Lenticular
-lens shaped
Locule
-a cavity
Macroconidium(ia)
-larger, generally more distinctive conidium form for a species that also has microconidia
Macrocyst
-a giant cell in whcih zygotes are formed during the life cycle of some slime molds
Mastigonemes
-hair like covering on tinsel type flagella
Mazaedium
-mucilaginous and powdery mass that appears in the ascocarp of certain ascomycetes; a pin like fruit body of certain lichens
Medulla
-internal tissue of an organ, soft or spongy in nature
Membranous
-like a membrane; thin and flexible
Meristem
-actively dividing cells
merous
-suffix meaning part (eg: trimerous means in 3 parts)
Microconidium(ia)
-smaller, less distinctive conidium form for a species that also has macroconidia
Mushroom
-the reproductive body of certain basidiomycetes; typically consists of cap, stem and gills
Mutualism
-'living together' of unlike species to their mutual benefit
-eg: mycorrhizae, lichens
Mycelium(ia)
-a mass of hyphae, with or without septa
Mycobiont
-fungal component of a lichen
Mycoparasite
-a fungus parasitic on another fungus
Mycorrhizae
-symbiotic association between hyphae of certain fungi and the roots of vascular plants
Myxamoeba
-the amoeba that results from germination of a spore
oecious
-suffix meaning house
Ontogeny
-developement
Oogonium
-unicellular female sex organ that contains one or several eggs
Oosphere
-female gametes formed within the oogonium
Oospore
-a spore that results from the fertilization of an oosphere
Operculum
-a covering to an open chamber
Ostiole
-opening at the top of reproductive structures
Ovoid
-like a hens egg, with one end narrower than the other, wide end at the base
Para
-prefix meaning beside
physis
-suffix meaning growth
Paraphyses
-sterile determinate hyphae that separate asci in some ascomata
Parasexuality
-a secual reproductive process generating an offspring cel containing genetic material from more than a single parent but without standard meiosis or fertilization
-shitty mitosis
-occurs in deutormycetes
-3 stages: 1) heterokaryosis; 2)diploidization; 3)haploidization
Parasitic
-living on or within another organism and obtaining nutrients at the expense of that organism (see mutualistic and symbiotic)
Pendulous
-hanging down
Per
-prefix meaning 'more than'
Perforate
-having pores
Peri
-prefix meaning around
Peridiole
-small round bodies that contain the basidia and basidiospores in Nidulariales
Peridium
-a wall that envelopes a fruiting body
Persistent
-remaining for a long time
Perithecium
-a flasklike ascoma
Phago
-prefix meaning to eat
Phagocytosis
-uptake of materials into cells by means of infagination of the plasma membrane
Phagotroph
-an organism feeding by means of phagocytosis
Phialide
-a cell that develops an open end from which a succession of spores are produced, without the phialide increasing in length
-Basipetal spore formation
-phialides are typically flask shaped and are characteristic of Penicillium and Aspergillus spp
Phototrophic
-an organism whose nutritional mode of obtaining energy is derived from light to synthesize organic compounds by photosynthesis
Phycobiont
-the algal component of a lichen
Pileus
-the outer sterile covering of a mushroom cap
podium
-suffix meaning foot
Plasmodium
-vegetative, multinucleate, motile mass of cytoplasm, lacking cell wall and contained within a single cell membrane, characteristic of myxomycetes (see pseudoplasmodium)
Plasmogamy
-fusion of the protoplasts of gametes
Podetium
-an erect stem like structure on which apothecia are formed in fruticose lichens
Pore
-structure in the tips of some asci, often containing starch
Pro
-prefix meaning before
Progametangium
-a lateral hyphal branch that differentiates into a gametangium and then later a suspensor of the zygosporangium, in Zygomycota
Propagule
-any structure that serves to propagate or vegetatively multiply an organism
Pseudo
-prefix meaning false
Pseudohyphae
-hyphae like chains of linked yeast cells
Pseudoplasmodium
-plasmodium formed by aggregation of amoeboid cells, then behaving as a single entity before sporulation, characteristic of Dictyostelium (compare with plasmodium)
Pseudothecium
-an ascostroma bearing asci in unwalled locules
Pycnidium(a)
-flask shaped fruiting bodies containing conidia (asexual spores), and resembling a perithecium
Recurved
-curved with the outside of the curve expanded (like a sickle, or a new moon)
Resting spore
-thick walled spore that requires a period of dormancy before before germination
Rhizoid
-a root like structure, a filamentous branch like extension for feeding rather than reproduction
Rhizomorph
-a specialized root like structure found in certain fungi
Sapro
-prefix meaning rotten
Saprobic/Saprophytic
-gaining nutrients from dead, organic material
Saxi
-prefix meaning rock
Saxicolous
-organism that lives attached to the surface of rocks
Sclerotium
-firm, frequently rounded mass of hyphae, lacking spores per se, but functioning for long term survival
Septum
-a transverse wall in a cell or a hypha
Sessile
-without a stem; attached directly to the substrate
Setae
-bristles
Shuttle streaming
-periodic reversal of cytoplasmic streaming in plasmodium of slime molds
Simple
-opposite of branched
Somatogamy
-the fusion of somatic cells during plasmogamy
Soralium
-a cortical pustule of various types in the lichen thallus through which the soredia are released to the exterior
Soredium
-vegetative propagule of lichens; it consists of minute clusters of algal cells surrounded by fungal hyphae
Sorocarp
-sexual reproductive structure in which haploid meiotic spores are formed
Sorus
-fruiting structure consisting of a mass of spores and sporangia
Spermagonium
-structure in which spermatia are produced
Spermatiophore
-specialized hypha that produces spermatia
Sporangiophore
-specialized hypha that produces and supports one or more sporangia
Sporangium
-large asexual sporogenous structure in oomycetes, chytridiomycetes, zygomycetes, containing many sporangiospores
Sporangiospore
-non sexual spore produced by rearrangement/packaging of preexisting cytoplasm within a sporangium
Spore
-general term for a reproductive structure of fungi, that does not contain an embryo
-in fungi, spores may be single or multicelled
Sporocladium(ia)
-complex of zygomycete sporangia
Sporodochium(ia)
-cushion of laterally fused or compacted conidiophores, typical of Fusarium sp.
Sp(p)
-abbreviation for species, singular and plural
Stalked
-with a stem
Stellate
-star shaped
Sterigma
-small projection upon which basidiospores are formed
Stipe
-stalk of mushroom
Stolon
-horizontal hypha that vecomes anchored in the substrate at points of contact
Stroma
-fused mass of hyphae appearing as a tissue
Subtending
-extending from underneath
Suspensor
-a hyphal branch that supports
Swarm cells
-motile spores, also known as zoospores
Symbioses
-'living together' of unlike species to their mutual benefit
Teleomorph
-sexual stage in a fungal life cycle (nonsexual stage is the anamorph)
Teliospore
-in rust fungi, a thick walled spore in which karyogamy and meiosis occur
Telium
-the structure that produces teliospores
Terrestrial
-on the ground
Terri
-prefix meaning earth
Terricolous
-an organism that lives in the soil
Thallic developement
-conidia are derived from a pre existing cell, the fertile hypha
-septa are inserted after growth of the fertile hypha has ceased, and additional wall changes may occur
Thallus
-multicellular vegetative body, typically mycelial, and typically non motile
thecium
-suffix meaning case
Tinsel flagella
-flagellum that bears small filaments (MASTIGONEMES) extending from its main axis
Trama
-the inner sterile tissue of the cap or gill
Trichogyne
-a receptive protuberance of the female gametangium for the conveyance of spermatia (Rhodophyta) or male nuclei (Ascomycota)
Umbilicus
-structure for attachment of thallus in certain lichens
Unitunicate
-asci with a single membrane layer, sometimes with a pore structure or operculum (lid)
Universal veil
-covering that surrounds the basidocarp
Urediniospore
-in rust fungi, a reddish, binucleate spore
Uredinium
-the structure that produces urediniospores
-the pustule
Viscid
-slimy
Volva
-remnant structure of the universal veil
Whiplash flagella
-smooth flagellum
Whorl
-a ring, one turn of a spiral
Zygophore
-hyphal branch that gives rise to a progametangium
Zoospore
-a motile spore
Zoosporangium
-a sporangium bearing zoospores
Zygo
-prefix meaning yoke; a paired structure
Zygospore
-thick walled resting spore characteristic of Zygomycetes