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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Classify, draw and label Phycomyces
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Zygomycota
O-Mucorales
G-Phycomyces

Did you get:
- +'ve hyphae
- -'ve hyphae
-zygophores
-suspensor
-progametangium
-gametangium
-spines
-zygote
-zygospore
Classify, draw and label Rhizopus
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Zygomycota
O-Mucorales
G-Rhizopus

Did you get:
-asexual structures
-sporangiophore
-sporangia
-columella
-spore
-stolon
-rhizoid
Classify Pilobus
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Zygomycota
O-Mucorales
G-Pilobus
Classify, draw and label Entomophthora
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Zygomycota
O-Entomophthorales
G-Entomophthora

Did you get:
-insect abdomen
-sclerite
-hyphae
-conidiophore
-conidium
Classify, draw and label Saccharomyces
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Hemiascomycetes (no ascoma)
O-Saccharomycetales (yeasts)
G-Saccharomyces

Did you get:
-budding cells
-ascus
-ascospores (4)
Classify, draw and label Schizosaccharomyces
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Hemiascomycetes (no ascoma)
O-Schizosaccharomycetales
G-Schizosaccharomyces

Did you get:
-ascus
-ascospores (8)
Classify Taphrina
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Hemiascomycetes (no ascoma)
O-Taphrinales
G-Taphrina
Classify, draw and label Aspergillus
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Plectomycetes (cleistothecium-no hymenium)
O-Eurotiales
G-Aspergillus

Did you get:
-conidiophore
-apical vesicle
-phialide
-conidium
Classify Penicillium
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Plectomycetes (cleistothecium-no hymenium)
O-Eurotiales
G- Penicillium
Classify, draw and label Eurotium
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Plectomycetes (cleistothecium-no hymenium)
O-Eurotiales
G-Eurotium

Did you get:
-cleistothecium
-wall cells
-ascus
-ascospore
-sterile hyphae
Classify, draw and label Claviceps
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Pyrenomycetes (perithecia, ostiole, hymenium)
O-Clavicipitales (perithecia on stromata from sclerotium)
G-Claviceps

Did you get:
-sclerotium
-stalk
-stroma
-perithecium
-perithecial wall
-ostiole
-region of ascogenous hyphae
-hymenium
-ascus
-ascospore
Classify Erysiphe
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Pyrenomycetes (perithecia, ostiole, hymenium)
O-Erysiphales (powdery mildews, haustoria)
G-Erysiphe
Classify Uncinula
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Pyrenomycetes (perithecia, ostiole, hymenium)
O-Erysiphales (powdery mildews, haustoria)
G-Uninula
Classify Microsphaera
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Pyrenomycetes (perithecia, ostiole, hymenium)
O-Erysiphales (powdery mildews, haustoria)
G-Microsphaera
Classify Sordaria
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Pyrenomycetes (perithecia, ostiole, hymenium)
O-Sphaeriales
G-Sordaria
Classify, draw and label Peziza
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Discomycetes (apothecia)
O-Pezizales
G-Peziza

Did you get:
-apothecium
-hymenium
-region of ascogenous hyphae
-ascus
-ascospore
-paraphysis
-hymenium
-hypothecium
Classify Morchella
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Discomycetes (apothecia)
O-Pezizales
G-Morchella
Classify Tuber
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Discomycetes (apothecia)
O-Tuberales
G-Tuber
Classify Venturia
D-Eukarya
K-Eumycota
P-Ascomycota (sac fungi)
C-Loculoascomyctes (pseudothecia, 2-celled ascospores)
G-Venturia
G-
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum Zygomycota?
-zygo = 'pairing' or joining, as in 'zygote'
-zygospores develop thick, complex walls
-terrestrial
-lack a flagellated stage in life cycle
-do not have zoospores, but some insect pathogens have a wall less, amoeboid stage whilst growing in their victims
-aseptate hyphae
-chitonous walls
-sexual reproduction is by fusion of gametangia
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Mucorales?
-includes Phycomyces blakesleeanus (the shit that we inoculated and grew into eachother)
-sporangiophores are often branched
Describe the fusion and zygote developement processes of Phycomyces blakesleeanus.
-hyphae from +'ve and -'ve mycela (of oposite mating strains) approach each other, a COPULATION ZONE is established
-relatively few upright sporangiophores bearing sporangia are formed in this zone
-there is a yellowing of the hyphae due to an increase in their cartenoid content
-elongation of the vegetative hyphae stops in the copulation zone, and special somehat enlarged and irregular branches grow from the hypae of both strains
-these thicker branch hyphae are the ZYGOPHORES
-+'ve and -'ve zygophores grow towards each other on the surface of the nutrient medium until they meet, and then grow into the air
-zygophores meet at the tips, which now enlarge to become PROGAMETANGIA
-a septum forms to separate each enlarged grogametangium from the rest of the zygophore
-progametangia become gametangia and the supporting portions of the zygophores are now called SUSPENSORS
-walls of gametangia dissolve, allowing the + and - gametangia to fuse, forming a 2n zygote, which develops into a thick walled zygospore

-zygospores myst undergo a resting period before they germinate
-germination occurs by the formation of a sporangiophore with a terminal germ sporangium
-haploid nuclei from the 2 gametangia fuse in the zygospore prior to germination, and the resultin dipploid nuclei undergo meiosis
-haploid daughter nuclei become incroportated into uninucleate or multinnucleate spores within the sporangium, depending on the spp's

**sporangiophores can get frickin huge!!! Up to 30cm!**
**pg.M2-1**
**Rhizopus is similar, pg107 & M2-2,3,4,5**
How does Pilobus discharge it's spores?
-light triggered
-positively phototrophic
-at maturit, sap pressure inside the vesicle increases
-sporangium wall detaches from the vesicle wall, and a sticky mucilage is exposed at its base
-top of the vesicle bursts along a line of weakness
-cell sap suddenly suirts out and shoots the sporangium for distances of up to several feet.
-sporangium carries some of the adhesive mucilage and sap with it
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Entomophthorales?
-insect eaters, although can be grown in culture
-good as biocontrol agents
-grows between the sclerites
What are some defining characteristics to the Orders Endogonales and Glomales?
-are symbiotic with plant roots
-form a type of MYCORRHIZAL interaction called VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM)
-penetrating hypha produces branched ARBUSCLES and globular VESICLES whcih eventually are digested by the plant
-has external spore bearing structures called SOROCARPS.
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum Ascomycota?
-AKA Sac Fungi
-have dikaryotic phases
-dikaryotic hyphae form the fertile layer of the ASCOMA (ASCOCARP) which houses the sexual spores

-sexually produced spores are formed in an ASCUS
-ASCI are produced inside an ASCOMA
How does the asexual and sexual cycle occur in the typical ascomycete?
Asexual
-formation of CONIDIA on CONIDIOPHORES
-conidia germinate into hyphae and process repeats

Sexual
-begins with the formation of ascomycete gametangia called ASCOGONIA(female) and ANTHERIDIA(male)
-fertilization involves the passage of several haploid nuclei from the antheridium to the ascogonium by way of a TRICHOGYNE (specialized hypha on the ascogonium which fuses with the antheridium)
-dikaryotic ASCOGENOUS HYPHAE develope from the dikaryotic ascogonium, and produce ASCI which produce ASCOSPORES (in detail in another flashcard)
-ascospores are released and germinate into mycelium

**antheridium is absent in some groups, and its function is taken over by a non motil male gamete, the SPERMATIUM, chich fuses with the trichogyne. Spermatia form on special branch hyphae called SPERMATIOPHORES**
**both sexual organs may be absent and nuclei of opposite compatible mating types are brought together by fusion of vegetative hyphae (SOMATOGAMY). The compatible nuclei may come from the same or different mycelia**
**plasmogamy occurs at a different location form the site of karyogamy. Between the 2 steps is the DIKARYOTIC PHASE**
**pg.112 & M2-10,16,17,18,20**
Discuss the process of ascus and ascospore formation of the Ascomycetes.
-after plasmogamy between ascogonium and antheridium, dikaryotic ascogenous hyphae grow from the fertilized ascogonium
-sterile hyphae grow from the basal cells (PARAPHYSIS)
-eventually, the dikaryotic ascogenous hypha produces a hooked CROZIER which undergoes CONJUGATE MITOSIS (both nuclei replicate therefore 4 nuclei)
-septa formation isolates 2 nuclei (PENULTIMATE CELL) from the other 2 nuclei (one in the original ascogenous hyphae, the other on the terminating end of the hypha)
-karyogame occurs in the PENULTIMATE CELL which produces a TRANSIENT DIPLOID, which immediately undergoes meiosis I & II (4 haploid nuclei) and then one mitosis (8 haploid nuclei)
-nuclei recieve an envelope and now known as ascospores
-penultimate cell now called an ASCUS

-most asci have a single wall surrounding the ascospores
-these are called UNITUNICATE ASCI
-they can have a simple apex, a trap door(OPERCULUM) a simple pore or a comlex pore
-some can be BITUNICATE ASCI, discussed in another flashcard

**pg.113**
What is an ASCOMA(MATA)?

List the 4 types.
-fruiting body where asci, sometimes paraphysis and sometimes hymenium layer are contained

4 Types:
1)Apothecia (Gk 'open')
-cup chaped and range in size from minute to several cm across

2)Cleistothecia (Gk 'closed')
-lack an ostiole, they are entirely closed

3)Perithecia (Gk 'surrounding')
-are flask shaped
-opening is called an OSTIOLE
-can also be embedded in a tissue or STROMA, but retain a distinct wall

4)Pseudothecia (Gk 'false')
-lack a distinct wall and are characterisic of Loculoascomycetes

**pg.114**
What are some defining characteristics to the Class Hemiascomycetes?
-includes unicellular and filamentous forms which lack ASCOMATA (fruiting bodies)
-asci are produced by the direct transformation of vegetative cells rather than the more elaborate processes found in other classes (ie: crozier hook)
-arguably the most important group of eukaryotes both economically and scientifically
-includes brewing and baking yeasts
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Saccharomycetales?
-AKA brewer's and baker's yeast
-formerly known as Endomycetales
-typicaly unicellular
-cells divide by budding, which is synchronized with nuclear division
-sometimes yeast cells remain linked after dividing, forming PSEUDOHYPHAE
How can you tell the difference between PSEUDOHYPHAE and TRUE HYPHAE?
-pseudohyphae have constrictions
-pseudohyphal growth can be induced by nitrogen starvation, and unlike buds, pseudohyphae can penetrate into semi solid medium

-true hyphae have a smooth profile
-hyphal septa are formed by secondary wall growth, after the hypha has formed
Describe the life cycle of Saccharomycetales.
Asexual
-budding off by binary fission

Sexual
-conjugation/fusion of 2 individual vegetative cells called SCHMOOS
-haploid cells form schmoos which secrete pheromones and display pheromone receptors, attracting one another and resuling in PLASMOGAMY, KARYOGAMY and budding off of a diploid cell line
-after meiosis in the diploid cell, it transorms into an ASCUS with 4 haploid ASCOSPORES
-yeast ascospores may be ovoid, needle like, hat shaped or even have an equatorial ring, like Saturn

**Schizosaccharomyces octosporus undergoes the same processes but after meiosis, undergoes mitosis to get 8 ascospores**
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Taphrinales?
-includes Taphrina which induces HYPERTROPHY (swelling and malformation) in angiosperms
-Taphrina hyphae are dikaryotic
-ascospores bud like yeast cells, while they are still in the ascus and even after they are released, these can function as spores
-spores reinfect the host by germinating and reestablishing dikaryotic hyphae
-causes Plum Pockets(infects the young fruit, desroys the seeds and causes shrunken, hollow fruit)
What are some defining characteristics to the Class Plectomycetes?
-produces CLEISTOTHECIA, the simplest type of ascoma
-sometimes it is only a cluster of asci (Byssochlamys), but can resemble a miniature ball of wool (Talaromyces) or have an organized wall (Eurotium)
-asci are scattered throughout the cleistothecium because they form on ascogenous hyphae of different lengths
-THERE IS NO DISTINCT HYMENIUM!!!!!

**pg.117**
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Eurotiales?
-have ascopores shaped like pulley wheels with an equatorial groove
-includes some sexual stages that belong to species with the far better known asecual stages represented by the form generea Aspergillus and Penicillium
-asexual stages are classified using characteristics of the CONIDIA(asexual spores) and CONIDIOPHORES
-since sexual stages have not been identified for all Aspergillus and Penicillium spp's, they are put in a 'form phylum' DEUTEROMYCOTA (AKA FUNGI IMPERFECTI) for convenience
-by convention, where the secual stage is known, its name has precedence over that of the asexual stage (eg: Eurotium herbariorum is the correct name over Aspergillus glaucus)
-have industrial and pharmaceutical uses (drugs and cheese)
What are some defining characteristics to the Class Pyrenomycetes?
-nearly all asci in this class are borne in PERITHECIA with a HYMENIUM LAYER

-however, Erysiphales, which bear their asci in a cleistotheicum, are included in Pyrenomycetes because the asci are arranged in a hymenium layer instead of being scattered
What are some defining characteristics of the Order Erysiphales?
-AKA POWDERY MILDEWS
-parasites of vascular plants
-genera distinguished by the appendages on the ascomata, which can contain one or several asci
-highly host specific
-extract nourishment from hosts using HAUSTORIA (specially modified hyphal branches). Penetrates the host cell wall, BUT NOT the cell membrane, can have elaborate finger like lobes
How would you differentiate Erysiphe, Uncinula and Microsphaera?
-by looking at the appendages on the ascomata

-Erysiphe = normal hyphae
-Uncinula = coiled hook
-Microsphaera = dichotomously branched tips
What are some defining characteristics of the Order Sphaeriales?
-produce spherical or flask shaped perithecia with an ostiole
-important in early genetic and molecular genetic research, used to prove that each gene encodes their own polypeptide
What are some defining characteristics of the Order Clavicipitales?
-form perithecia, embedded n large club shaped, black or bright colored STROMA(MATA)
-causes ergot disease of rye and other grasses
-forms BLACK ELONGATED SCLEROTIA(hard mass of thick walled hyphae) on the rye
-after overwintering, sclerotia germinate to produce stromata
-stromata and sclerotia are both vegetative hyphal tissues
-ergot sclerotia contain several toxic substances including LYSERGIC ACID, precursor of LSD
-cause of SALEM WITCH HUNTS/TRIALS
Go over the life cycle of Claviceps purpurea.
-filamentous ascospores are dispresed in the srping by wind
-once reaching the inflorescence of a grass, they germinate and infect the overy with their hyphae
-after the disintegration of the ovary tissue, the fungus forms a white, loosely packed mycelium over its surface and gives rise to numerous conidia
-in the process of conidium formation, a nectar like product (HONEYDEW) is produced, which attracts many insects; in this way, conidia are carried to uninfected inflorescences
-at the same time as grain formation of the uninfected inflorecences the mycelia harden to form first of all reddish, and later on black sclerotia (ergot bodies), which replace the rye grain, but are generally larger in size
-the sclerotia overwinter in the soil and germinate next spring fiving rise to several stlked stromata with head like swellings at their tips
-just below the surface of these swellings, the sex organs are produced, which develop into the sunken perithecia after fertilization
-the ascospores are actively ejected through the ostiole when mature

**M2-15**
Go over the life cycle of Aspergillus
M2-13
What are some defining characteristics to the Class Discomycetes?
-asci are borne in cup shaped APOTHECIA
-apothecia can be stalked or sessile
-apotheica are closed structure during early development but open at maturity to reveal the HYMENIUM LAYER
-have PARAPHYSES
-HYPOTHECIUM is the layer in which ASCOGENOUS HYPHAE are found. Consists of densely interwoven hyphae, which appear as small red stained cells in your preparation
-most ascospores ae discharged forcibly from the ascus either through a fine pore at the tip or after an OPERCULUM opens
-spore discharge occurs simultaneously in all mature asci of one apothecium, a phenomenon called PUFFING. Looks like a cloud of smoke
-in the underground truffles, the ascospores are lierated passively when the fruit bodies decay
What are some defining characterisitics to the Class Loculoascomycetes?
-plant parasites
-have BITUNICATE ASCI in a PSEUDOTHECIUM
-asci are formed in cavities called LOCULES, but there is no special wall delimiting each cavity, unlike perithecia
-asexual fruiting structure is an acervulus