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26 Cards in this Set

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Define superficial mycoses
Infections caused by fungi that colonize the keratinized outermost layers of the skin, hair, and nails. Infections are generally asymptomatic, nondestructive, and stimulate little or no host immune response
What causes Pityriasis versicolor
Malassezia furfur infection
What is the clinical presentation of Pityriasis versicolor
Hypo or hyper pigmented macules, usually on chest, shoulders, upper trunk, arm, neck; irregular patches, may be scaley
How is Pityriasis versicolor diagnosed
Microscopic ID of spaghetti and meatballs (yeast and hyphae) in epidermal scales treated with 10% KOH
What is the treatment for Pityriasis versicolor
Improved hygiene plus topical azoles or selenium sulfide shampoo
What causes Tinea nigra
Infection by Hortaea werneckii, formerly Exophiala werneckii
What is the clinical presentation of Tinea nigra
Single pigmented dark mass on palm or sole
What is white piedra
A superficial infection of hair (groin and axillae) caused by yeastlike fungi, Trichosporon species
What does microscopic exam of White piedra show
Budding yeast cells, hyphal elements, and arthroconidia
Culture infected hair on Sabouraud's without cycloheximide
What is black piedra
An uncommon superficial infection of hair (usually on scalp) caused by Piedraia hortae
What are the three common dermatophytes
Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Trichophyton
The most common dermatophytoses worldwide are caused by what
Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes
How are dermatophytoses transmitted
Direct from arthroconidia or hyphae
Indirect from infected desquamated skin or hair
What are the six common Dermatophytic tinea infections
Tinea capitis (head)
Tinea pedia (foot)
Tinea cruris (groin)
Tinea barbae (beard)
Tinea corporus (body)
Tinea unguium=onychomycosis (nails)
How are dermatophytes infections diagnosed
Dissolve skin scrapings in KOH to digest keratin. Microscopic exam will reveal branched hyphae
Direct exam of hair and skin with Wood's light (UV 365nm). Certain species of Microsporum will fluoresce a brilliant green
How are dermatophyte infections affecting skin treated
With topical agents (imidazoles, terbinafine, haloprogin) or Whitfield's ointment
What are some general characteristics of subcutaneous mycoses
Usually introduced by trauma; fungi usually found in soil; Involve dermis, subcutaneous tissue, and bone
What fungus is characterized as thermally dimorphic, commonly found in soil and on plants. Following a prick by a thorn contaminated with it, a subcutaneous nodule gradually appears. This nodule becomes necrotic and ulcerates. The ulcer heals, but new nodules pop up nearby and along the lymphatic tracts up the arm.
Sporothrix schenkii
How is Sporothrix schenckii diagnosed
Microscopic exam reveals yeast cells that reproduce by budding. Yeast at 37C, branching hyphae at 25C
How is Sporothrix schenkii infection treated
Potassium iodide classically
What infection is defined by Chronic fungal cutaneous and subcutaneous fungal infections distinguished by slow-growing verrucous nodules and plaques, most often caused by dematiaceous (pigmented) fungi such as Phialophora and Cladosporium
Chromoblastomycosis
What fungus has muriform cells (copper bodies), causes increase of melanin in cell walls, and is distinguished by slow-growing verrucous nodels and cauliflower excrescence
Chromoblastomycosis
What is the treatment for Chromoblastomycosis
Itraconazole; flucytosine added in unresponsive cases
What disease is defined by chronic subcutaneous fungal infections caused by pigmented (dematiaceous) fungi which appear in tissue as irregular hyphae (rather than the sclerotic muriform cells of chromoblastomycosis)
Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis
What disease is defined by a localized, chronic, invasive, granulomatous, fungal infection, characterized by multiple large granulomas and abscesses containing funga granules/grains and hyphae. Extent of damage may be deforming with irreversible destruction of muscle, bone, and fascia. Abscess drainage (including granules) is external through the skin
Eumycotic mycetoma
Madura foot is a manifestation of what
Infiltration of tarsals and metatarsals in advance Eumycotic Mycetoma