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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Adam Smith
*Proposed and Supported Lassez-Faire
*Author of The Wealth of Nations
*Believed that a free maket was the best on, that it would produce more goods at lower prices, making them afordable for everyone
Charles "Turnip" Townshend
Wanted to try new methods of crop rotation. Urged farmes to grow turnips that relineshed the soil
Jethro Tull
Invented mechanical device, the Seed Drill, to aid farmers
Richard Arkwright
Made Water Frame-Machine powered by water to create a purely cotton fabric
James Hargreaves
Made Spinning Jenny- spun many threads at the same time making spinning thread faster
Industrial Revolution
Started in Britain because they had the Natural Reasouces, Large Labor supply, New Tech., Stable goverment and society that valued hard work, British had the capital
*It occured b/c of the Aricultural Revoution, population increase, New tech-like use of steampower
Agricultural Revolution
Led by the Dutch, who built sea walls to create more farm land, Use of Fertilizer
Effects: Development of crop rotation, New machinery
Enclosure Movement: Created land boundaries in areas that had been shared by peasant farmers in the past, more logical use of land to increase commericial profits
Results: Population increase, better medical & techology knowledge, people were living longer
New Inventions
*Turnpikes and ccanals
*Steam Locomotives-made by George Stephenson
*Stemboats-Robert Fulton and the Clermont(also known as "Fulton's Folly")
Urbanization
*People began to move to cities due to changes in farming and the increased need for factory worker
Effect on Cities:
*Poor Sanitation
*Tenement House
*Public Health Concerns
Helped Contribute to the awful Factory System
Germ Theory
Louis Pasteur discovered germs and how they cause disease and illness
Social Darwinism
Applyed evolution to society and people
*People who beilived it gave little aed for the poor and weak b/c they thought that it is just nature's way of getting rid of those people
Charter of French Liberities
A document that limited the limited Louse XVIII power
*Two-house legislature(passed laws)
*Freedom of pressed allowed
Simon Bolivar/South America
Independence of South America was led by Simon Bolivar-"The Liberator"
*He felt that it was the right time to revolt against the Spanish
--Napoleon had invaded Spain(180)
--When he established a republic, civil war broke out
Independence of Mexico/Prominent Leaders
Father Miguel Hidalgo- led a small army to march on Mexico City-UNSUCESSFUL-
*He was captured and executed
Father Jose Morelos- called for abolition of slavery, the right to vote for all men, improvement of conditions for all mexicans-UNSUCESSFUL-
*he was captured and shot 1815
Agustin de Iturbide- concered w/ constitution in spain, it would bring changes in Mexico he didn't wasnt-SUCESSFUL-
*Overthrew Spanish Vicero in Mexico, gained indepedence in 1821, created the United Provinces of Central America
French Revolution of 1848/Feb. and June Days
People revolted b/c of coruption in Louis Philippe's gov., Recession-people lost jobs, poor harvests- led to an increase in bread prices
Feb. Days(Feb. 1848)
- The gov. tried to get people under control and the people roit and crowd the Streets
-This cases Louis Phillipe to give up the thron and the Second Republic created
June Days(June 1848)
*Upper and middle class people control gov and make conditions more diff.t for the working class
--Workers roit and they are attacked by those in control of gov-1,500 killed
*Created even more fear and distrust throughtout France
ENDS 1848
Louis Philippe and his goverment in France
(Cousin of Charles X) chosen by people after Charles was driven out of ciry
*people decided on a Constiutional Monarchy
In 1848, the French revolt again
*Corruption in Lousis' gov
*Recession-people lost jobs
*Poor harvest led to an increase in bread prices
*Secret societies encourage revolt for a republic
Revolt of Ottomans in Balkans/Prominent People
Serbia:
Karageorge- led the people of the Balkans against the rule of the ottoman Empire(1804-1813)-UNSUCESSFUL-
Milos Obrenoue- led another rebellion(1815)-SUCESSFUL w/ the help of Russians
*Serbs won autonomy(self-rule) w/in the Ottoman Empire
Nationalists
National groups(ethnic groups) w/in large empires that wanted to declare independence
-Creating countries made up of only people from their culture and heritage- homeland for them
Liberals
Wanted to countinue to revolt against traditional rule
*Business owners, bankers, Lawyers-middle class people
*Wanted to expansion of personal liberty
--Require gov.s to have constitutions
--Believed in seperation of powers and natural rights
--Gov. is supposed to protect the rights of its citizens
--Later will support universal manhood suffrage
)All adult men should have the right ot vote
Conservatives
People who liked the way liked the way life was before 1789 and the rebolutions
Examples of Conservatives:
King, officials who had worked for the King, church leaders, and owners, some peasants
-They want to revers the changes that have happened in Europe.
-- For their own gain and also belived the new way only led to disorder
Will use their power to crush some uprisings for independence throughtout Europe
Ex: Spain and Italy
Haiti/Toussanint L 'Ouverture
Many disliked Spanish rule and felt the Spanish gov. sustem was unfair
-Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos, Mulattoes
Toussaint L ' Ouverture- amrmy of slaves overthrew plantation owner
*French, British, and Spanish troops try to put down the revolution
--1798 Slavery outlawed, former slaves controled most of the island
--1802 Napoleon will try to seeize control of the island but is ultimately-UNSUCESSFUL-
althought L 'Ouverture is captured
*1804- Haiti declares independence
*1820- Haiti becomes a republic
Chp 22:
Bismark and German(Prussian) Unification
Bismark, the prime minister of William I of Russia
-Later Chancellor
Bismark's Policies:
Realpolitik: Making all policies and politics come together fot the good of the nation
The Army: Needed Stong military to be recognized as powerful in the world
To keep the Holenzollerns in power
Foreign Policy:When going to war made sure the country wasn't allied with anyone
Wars Fought to Bring About German Unification
Danish War(1864)- Fought over Schleswigh and Holstein
* Had large German populations but Kins Christian IX of Denmark declared them Danish states in 1863
-Provinces asked for help from German povinces- didn't want to be controled by Denmark
*Austria and Prussia easily defeat Demark
-(P=Schleswig/A=Holstein)
Made Europe view Prussia as a military force and tension b/w Prussia and Austria over division of lands gave Bismark an excuse to fight Austria later
Austro-Prussian War(1866): got Russians to stay nuetral if ever went to war with Austria by helping suppress a revolt, he got French to remain nuetral by promising Napoleaon III territory, and he gained Italian support by promising them Venetia
Louis Philippe and his goverment in France
(Cousin of Charles X) chosen by people after Charles was driven out of ciry
*people decided on a Constiutional Monarchy
In 1848, the French revolt again
*Corruption in Lousis' gov
*Recession-people lost jobs
*Poor harvest led to an increase in bread prices
*Secret societies encourage revolt for a republic
Revolt of Ottomans in Balkans/Prominent People
Serbia:
Karageorge- led the people of the Balkans against the rule of the ottoman Empire(1804-1813)-UNSUCESSFUL-
Milos Obrenoue- led another rebellion(1815)-SUCESSFUL w/ the help of Russians
*Serbs won autonomy(self-rule) w/in the Ottoman Empire
Nationalists
National groups(ethnic groups) w/in large empires that wanted to declare independence
-Creating countries made up of only people from their culture and heritage- homeland for them
Liberals
Wanted to countinue to revolt against traditional rule
*Business owners, bankers, Lawyers-middle class people
*Wanted to expansion of personal liberty
--Require gov.s to have constitutions
--Believed in seperation of powers and natural rights
--Gov. is supposed to protect the rights of its citizens
--Later will support universal manhood suffrage
)All adult men should have the right ot vote
Conservatives
People who liked the way liked the way life was before 1789 and the rebolutions
Examples of Conservatives:
King, officials who had worked for the King, church leaders, and owners, some peasants
-They want to revers the changes that have happened in Europe.
-- For their own gain and also belived the new way only led to disorder
Will use their power to crush some uprisings for independence throughtout Europe
Ex: Spain and Italy
Haiti/Toussanint L 'Ouverture
Many disliked Spanish rule and felt the Spanish gov. sustem was unfair
-Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos, Mulattoes
Toussaint L ' Ouverture- amrmy of slaves overthrew plantation owner
*French, British, and Spanish troops try to put down the revolution
--1798 Slavery outlawed, former slaves controled most of the island
--1802 Napoleon will try to seeize control of the island but is ultimately-UNSUCESSFUL-
althought L 'Ouverture is captured
*1804- Haiti declares independence
*1820- Haiti becomes a republic
Chp 22:
Bismark and German(Prussian) Unification
Bismark, the prime minister of William I of Russia
-Later Chancellor
Bismark's Policies:
Realpolitik: Making all policies and politics come together fot the good of the nation
The Army: Needed Stong military to be recognized as powerful in the world
To keep the Holenzollerns in power
Foreign Policy:When going to war made sure the country wasn't allied with anyone
Wars Fought to Bring About German Unification
Danish War(1864)- Fought over Schleswigh and Holstein
* Had large German populations but Kins Christian IX of Denmark declared them Danish states in 1863
-Provinces asked for help from German povinces- didn't want to be controled by Denmark
*Austria and Prussia easily defeat Demark
-(P=Schleswig/A=Holstein)
Made Europe view Prussia as a military force and tension b/w Prussia and Austria over division of lands gave Bismark an excuse to fight Austria later
Austro-Prussian War(1866): got Russians to stay nuetral if ever went to war with Austria by helping suppress a revolt, he got French to remain nuetral by promising Napoleaon III territory, and he gained Italian support by promising them Venetia