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105 Cards in this Set

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alibi
noun [C]
1 proof that someone who is thought to have committed a crime could not have done it, especially the fact or claim that they were in another place at the time it happened:
He has a cast-iron (= very strong) alibi - he was in hospital the week of the murder.

2 an excuse for something bad or for a failure:
After eight years in power, the government can no longer use the previous government's policy as an alibi for its own failure.
exculpate
verb [T] FORMAL
to remove blame from someone:
The pilot of the aircraft will surely be exculpated when all the facts are known.
sophism
noun [C] FORMAL
an argument which seems true but is really false and is used to deceive people
solace
noun [S or U] LITERARY
help and comfort when you are feeling sad or worried:
When his wife left him, he found solace in the bottle (= drank alcohol).
Music was a great solace to me during this period.
ardor
noun [U]
great enthusiasm or love:
His ardour for her cooled after only a few weeks.
alliteration
Function: noun
Etymology: ad- + Latin littera letter
: the repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables (as wild and woolly, threatening throngs) -- called also head rhyme, initial rhyme
emblazon
verb [T usually passive] (ALSO blazon)
to print or decorate something in a very noticeable way:
Her name was emblazoned across the front of the theatre.
cars emblazoned with the company logo
mendacious
adjective FORMAL
not truthful:
Some of these statements are misleading and some downright mendacious.
blatant
adjective
describes something bad that is very obvious or intentional:
a blatant lie
The whole episode was a blatant attempt to gain publicity.
ameliorate
verb [T] FORMAL
to make a bad or unpleasant situation better:
Foreign aid is badly needed to ameliorate the effects of the drought.
admonish
verb FORMAL
1 [T] to tell someone that they have done something wrong:
His mother admonished him for eating too quickly.
honorarium
noun [C] plural honorariums or honoraria FORMAL
a usually small sum of money paid to someone for a service for which no official charge is made:
We usually offer our visiting lecturers an honorarium of £50.
amicable
adjective
1 relating to behaviour between people that is pleasant and friendly often despite a difficult situation:
His manner was perfectly amicable but I felt uncomfortable.

2 relating to an agreement or decision that is achieved without arguments or unpleasantness:
Few people have amicable divorces.
Eventually we reached an amicable settlement.
amnesia
noun [U]
loss of the ability to remember:
In his later life he suffered periods of amnesia.
enervation
adjective FORMAL
causing you to feel weak and lacking in energy:
I find this heat very enervating.
amorphous
adjective
having no fixed form or shape:
an amorphous mass of jelly
haphazard
adjective
not having an obvious order or plan:
He tackled the problem in a typically haphazard manner.
errant
adjective [before noun] FORMAL
behaving wrongly in some way, especially by leaving home:
an errant husband
errant children
analgesia
Function: noun
Etymology: New Latin, from Greek analgEsia, from an- + algEsis sense of pain, from algein to suffer pain, from algos pain
: insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness
anarchism
noun [U]
the political belief that there should be little or no formal or official organization to society but that people should work freely together
apologist
noun [C] FORMAL
a person who supports a particular belief or political system, especially an unpopular one, and speaks or writes in defence of it:
communism and its apologists
There are few apologists for the old system.0
anecdote
noun [C]
a short often amusing story, especially about something someone has done:
He told one or two amusing anecdotes about his years as a policeman.
hyperbole
noun [U] FORMAL
a way of speaking or writing that makes someone or something sound bigger, better, more, etc. than they are:
The blurb on the back of the book was full of the usual hyperbole - 'enthralling', 'fascinating' and so on.
annals
plural noun FORMAL
historical records of the activities of a country or organization, or history in general:
The signing of the Treaty of Rome was the greatest event in the annals of European integration.
Quite whether he will go down in the annals of American history (= be considered) as a great leader remains to be seen.
gloss
verb [T]
to provide an explanation for a word or phrase:
In the school edition of the book, the older and more rare words have been glossed.

gloss
noun [C]
an explanation for a word or phrase:
Difficult expressions are explained in the glosses at the bottom of the page.
gadfly
1 : any of various flies (as a horsefly, botfly, or warble fly) that bite or annoy livestock
2 : a person who stimulates or annoys especially by persistent criticism
churl
a rude ill-bred person b : a stingy morose person
paradigm
noun [C] FORMAL
a model of something, or a very clear and typical example of something:
Some of these educators are hoping to produce a change in the current cultural paradigm.
antediluvian
adjective MAINLY HUMOROUS
extremely old-fashioned:
My mother has some hopelessly antediluvian ideas about the role of women.
emollient
noun [C]
a cream or liquid which makes dry or sore skin softer or less painful
apocalyptic
1. a very serious event resulting in great destruction and change

2. prophetic
inconsequential
1 a : ILLOGICAL b : IRRELEVANT
2 : of no significance : UNIMPORTANT
apocryphal
adjective FORMAL
describes a story that is probably not true although often told and believed by some people to have happened:
an apocryphal story
It's a good story but I dare say it's apocryphal.
contrite
adjective FORMAL
feeling great regret and guilt for something bad that you have done:
a contrite apology/expression
apophasis
the raising of an issue by claiming not to mention it (as in "we won't discuss his past crimes")

(修辭學中的)故抑其詞,以求婉達
apoplectic
adjective
extremely and noticeably angry, or in a state of violent excitement, usually caused by great anger:
He was apoplectic with rage/fury.
emaciated
adjective FORMAL
very thin and weak, usually because of illness or extreme hunger:
There were pictures of emaciated children on the cover of the magazine.
callow
- lacking adult sophistication : IMMATURE <callow youth>

- describes someone, especially a young person, who behaves in a way that shows a lack of experience, confidence or judgment:
Mark was just a callow youth of sixteen when he arrived in Paris.
apostasy
noun [U] FORMAL
the act of giving up your religious or political beliefs and leaving a religion or a political party:
In those days apostasy was punishable by death.

叛教;脫黨;變節
recant
verb [I or T] FORMAL
to announce in public that your past beliefs or statements were wrong and that you no longer agree with them:
After a year spent in solitary confinement, he publicly recanted (his views).
heresy
noun
1 [C or U] (the act of having) an opinion or belief that is the opposite of or against what is the official or popular opinion, or an action which shows that you have no respect for the official opinion:
Radical remarks like this amount to heresy for most members of the Republican party.
She committed the heresy of playing a Madonna song on a classical music station.

2 [U] a belief which is against the principles of a particular religion:
He was burned at the stake in the fifteenth century for heresy.
apothecary
noun [C]
a person who in the past made and sold medicines
bark
noun [U]
the hard outer covering of a tree
enamel
noun
1 [C or U] a glass-like substance used for decoration or protection which is melted onto clay, metal and glass objects and then left to cool and harden, or an object covered with this substance

2 a type of paint which forms a shiny surface when dry

3 the hard white shiny substance which forms the covering of a tooth
rind
noun [C or U]
the hard outer layer or covering of particular fruits and foods:
lemon/orange rind
bacon/cheese rind
cast
verb [T] cast, cast
to choose actors to play particular parts in a play, film or show:
He was often cast as the villain.
In her latest film she was cast against type (= played a different character than the one she usually played or might be expected to play).
FIGURATIVE They like to cast the opposing political party as (= to say that they are) the party of high taxes.
apposite
adjective FORMAL
suitable and right for the occasion:
an apposite phrase/quotation/remark
The film starts in a graveyard, an apposite image for the decaying society which is the theme of the film.
approbation
noun [U] FORMAL
approval or agreement, often given by an official group; praise:
The council has finally indicated its approbation of the plans.
reprehensible
adjective FORMAL
If someone's behaviour is reprehensible, it is extremely bad or unacceptable:
reprehensible conduct/actions
censure
noun [U] FORMAL
strong criticism or disapproval:
His dishonest behaviour came under severe censure.
mirth
noun [U] LITERARY
laughter, amusement or happiness:
Her impersonations of our teachers were a source of considerable mirth.
aqueduct
noun [C]
a structure for carrying water across land, especially one that looks like a high bridge with many arches, which carries pipes or a canal across a valley
arbiter
noun [C]
someone who makes a judgment or solves an argument or decides what will be done:
the arbiters of fashion/taste
The government will be the final arbiter in the dispute over the new road.
arboreal
adjective SPECIALIZED
of or living in trees:
arboreal animals
Many people believe that humans evolved from arboreal ancestors.
sidereal
adjective [before noun] SPECIALIZED
of or calculated by the stars
archaic
adjective
of or belonging to the distant past; from an ancient period in history:
an archaic system of government
an archaic law/rule/language
archetype
noun [C]
a typical example of something; the original model of something from which others are copied:
The United States is the archetype of a federal society.
exemplify
verb [T]
to be or give a typical example of something:
This painting perfectly exemplifies the naturalistic style which was so popular at the time.
harbinger
noun [C] LITERARY
someone or a thing that shows that something is going to happen soon, especially something bad:
a harbinger of doom
presage
verb [T] FORMAL
to show or suggest that something, often something unpleasant, will happen:
But still the economy is not showing signs of any of the excesses that normally presage a recession.
defer
transitive verb : to delegate to another <he could defer his job to no one -- J. A. Michener>

intransitive verb : to submit to another's wishes, opinion, or governance usually through deference or respect <deferred to her father's wishes>
synonym see YIELD
lassitude
noun [U] FORMAL
physical or mental tiredness:
Shareholders are blaming the company's problems on the lassitude of the managing director.
byline
noun [C] SPECIALIZED
a line at the top of a newspaper or magazine article giving the writer's name
dabble
verb [I]
to take a slight and not very serious interest in a subject, or try a particular activity for a short period:
He first dabbled in politics when he was at law school.
She dabbled with drugs at university.
ascetic
adjective
avoiding physical pleasures and living a simple life, often for religious reasons:
They live a very ascetic life.
grovel
verb [I] -ll- or US USUALLY -l-
to behave with too much respect towards someone to show them that you are very eager to please them:
He sent a grovelling note of apology.

卑躬屈膝;屈服
acquiesce
verb [I] FORMAL
to accept or agree to something, often unwillingly:
Reluctantly, he acquiesced to/in the plans.
self-denial
noun [U]
when you do not take or have something that you would like because you think it is good for you not to have it
busybody
noun [C] INFORMAL
a person who is too interested in things that do not involve them:
Some interfering busybody had rung the police.
aseptic
adjective
medically clean or without infection:
an aseptic wound/dressing/bandage
anesthetic
Function: adjective
1 : of, relating to, or capable of producing anesthesia
2 : lacking awareness or sensitivity <unmoved and quite anesthetic to his presence -- S. J. Perelman>
canard
noun [C] LITERARY
a false report or piece of information which is intended to deceive people
asperity
noun [U] FORMAL
the quality of being severe in the way that you speak and behave:
the asperity of her manner

1. (表面的)粗糙
2. (氣候的)嚴酷;艱苦的條件
3. (聲音、語調、態度、脾氣的)粗暴
aspirant
noun [C] FORMAL
someone who very much wants to achieve something:
an aspirant to the throne
quarry
noun [S]
a person or animal being hunted or looked for:
The dogs pursued their quarry into an empty warehouse.
belabor
verb [T]
1 UK (US belabor) to explain something more than necessary:
There's no need to belabour the point - you don't need to keep reminding me.

2 UK (US belabor) OLD-FASHIONED to hit someone or something hard and repeatedly:
She belaboured him with her walking stick.

3 UK to criticize someone
plumb
verb [T]
1 SPECIALIZED to measure how deep something is, especially water

2 to understand or discover all about something:
Now that she had begun, she wanted to plumb her own childhood further.
assiduous
adjective FORMAL
showing hard work, care and attention to detail:
assiduous research/efforts
an assiduous student
The Government has been assiduous in the fight against inflation.
vex
verb [T] OLD-FASHIONED
to cause difficulty to someone, or to cause someone to feel angry, annoyed or upset:
This issue looks likely to continue to vex the government.
astringent
noun [C or U]
a drug or cream that causes the skin or other tissue to tighten so that the flow of blood or other liquids stops:
You can use (an) astringent to make your skin less oily.
pucker
verb [I or T] (ALSO pucker up)
to tighten skin or cloth until small folds appear or (of skin or cloth) to form small folds:
He puckered his lips and kissed her.
Her mouth puckered and I thought she was going to cry.
puckered seams

使起皺;使縮攏;摺疊
coagulant
1 : to cause to become viscous or thickened into a coherent mass : CURDLE, CLOT
2 : to gather together or form into a mass or group

促凝劑;凝血劑
congeal
verb [I]
to change from a liquid or soft state to a thick or solid state:
The blood had congealed in thick black clots.
alchemy
noun [U]
1 a type of chemistry, especially from about 1100 to 1500, which dealt with trying to find a way to change ordinary metals into gold and with trying to find a medicine which would cure any disease

2 a process that is so effective that it seems like magic:
She manages, by some extraordinary alchemy, to turn the most ordinary of ingredients into the most delicious of dishes.
atrocious
adjective
of very bad quality:
an atrocious film/piece of acting
The weather has been atrocious all week.
Conditions in the prison were atrocious.
momentous
adjective
very important because of effects on future events:
the momentous news of the President's death
Whether or not to move overseas was a momentous decision for the family.
atrocity
noun [C or U]
when someone does something extremely violent and shocking:
They're on trial for committing atrocities against the civilian population.
These people are guilty of acts of great atrocity (= cruelty).
attentive
adjective
If someone is attentive, they are very helpful and take care of you:
He was very attentive to her when she was ill.
A good teacher is always attentive to their students' needs.
officious
adjective DISAPPROVING
too eager to tell people what to do and having too high an opinion of your own importance

1 archaic a : KIND, OBLIGING b : DUTIFUL
2 : volunteering one's services where they are neither asked nor needed : MEDDLESOME
3 : INFORMAL, UNOFFICIAL
snob
noun [C] MAINLY DISAPPROVING
a person who respects and likes only people who are of a high social class, and/or a person who has extremely high standards who is not satisfied by the things that ordinary people like:
He's a frightful snob - if you haven't been to the right school he probably won't even speak to you.
I'm afraid I'm a bit of a wine snob/a snob where wine is concerned.
meddlesome
verb [I] DISAPPROVING
to try to change or have an influence on things which are not your responsibility, especially in a critical, damaging or annoying way:
My sister's always meddling in other people's affairs.
People shouldn't meddle with things they don't understand.

愛管閒事的
debilitate
verb [T] FORMAL
to make someone or something physically weak:
Chemotherapy exhausted and debilitated him.
retrench
verb
1 [I] FORMAL If governments, companies, etc. retrench, they start spending less money, or reducing costs:
The company had to retrench because of falling orders.
audacious
adjective
showing a willingness to take risks or offend people:
He described the plan as ambitious and audacious.
an audacious remark/suggestion
trepidation
noun [U] FORMAL
fear or anxiety about what is going to happen:
We view future developments with some trepidation.
laconic
adjective FORMAL
using very few words to express what you mean:
She had a laconic wit.
stentorian
adjective FORMAL
using a very loud voice, or (of a voice) very loud:
a stentorian preacher
Suddenly a stentorian voice boomed across the room.
lucid
adjective
clearly expressed and easy to understand or (of a person) thinking or speaking clearly:
She gave a clear and lucid account of her plans for the company's future.
The drugs she's taking make her drowsy and confused, but there are times when she's quite lucid.
discern
verb [T] FORMAL
to see, recognize or understand something that is not clear:
I could just discern a figure in the darkness.
It is difficult to discern any pattern in these figures.
orator
noun [U] FORMAL
skilful and effective public speaking:
The prime minister has a reputation for powerful oratory.
augur
verb [I + adverb or preposition; T] FORMAL
to be a sign of especially good or bad things in the future:
The company's sales figures for the first six months augur well for the rest of the year.
Do you think that this recent ministerial announcement augurs (= is a sign of) a shift in government policy?
pundit
noun [C]
a person who knows a lot about a particular subject and is therefore often asked to give an opinion about it:
a political/foreign-policy/sports pundit
opine
verb [T] FORMAL
to state something as an opinion:
[+ speech] Power grows from the barrel of a gun, opined Mao Tse-tung.
[+ that] Ernest Rutherford opined that his work on radioactive substances would be of little or no practical use.
apocrypha
1 : writings or statements of dubious authenticity
dubious
adjective
1 thought not to be completely true or not able to be trusted:
These claims are dubious and not scientifically proven.
He has been associated with some dubious characters.
Ruth Ellis has the dubious (= bad) distinction of being the last woman to be hanged in Britain.

2 feeling doubt or uncertainty:
I'm dubious about his promises to change his ways.