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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the protein shell that encloses the viral genome
capsid
a membrane that cloaks the capsid and encloses a viral genome
viral envelope
bacterial viruses
bacteriophages or phages
the limited range of host cells that each virus can infect and parasitize
host range
a phage reproductive cycle that results in death of the host cell
lytic cycle
a phage that reproduces only by a lytic cycle
virulent phage
replicates the phage genome without destroying the host
lysogenic cycle
phages that are able to use both modes of reproducing within a bacterium
temperate phage
the lambda DNA molecule is incorporated by genetic recombination (crossing over) into a specific site on the host cell's chromosome
prophage
RNA viruses with the most complicated reproductive cycles
retroviruses
transcribes DNA from an RNA template
reverse transcriptase
integrated viral DNA
provirus
virus that causes AIDS (Aquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
HIV(Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
stimulate the immune system to mount defenses against the actual pathogen
vaccines
tiny molecules of naked circular RNA that infect plants
viriods
infectious proteins
prions
a dense region of DNA that is not bounded by a membrane like the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
nucleoid
the alterations of a bacterial cell's genotype by the uptake of naked, foreign DNA from the surrounding environment
transformation
phages carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another
transduction
the phage transfers bacterial genes at random
generalized transduction
transfers genes near the prophage site on the bacterial chromosome
specialized transduction
the direct transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells that are temporarily joined
conjugation
the ability to form sex pili and donate DNA during conjugation results from the presence of this special peice of DNA
F factor (F for fertility)
a small, circular, self-replicating DNA molecule separate from the bacterial chromosome
plasmid
can exist either as a plasmid or as part of the bacterial chromosome
episome
the plasmid form of the F factor
F plasmid
the genes conferring resistance are carried by these plasmids
R plasmids (R for resistance)
a piece of DNA that can move from one location to another in a cell's genome
transposon
the simplest bacterial transposons
insertion sequences
a sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to which an active repressor can attach
operator
the entire stretch of DNA required for enzyme production for the tryptophan pathway
operon
the operon can be switched off by this protein
repressor
the repressor is the product of this gene
regulatory gene
a small molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch an operon off.
corepressor
inactivates the repressor
inducer
accumulates when glucose is scarce
cyclic AMP (cAMP)
a regulatory protein that activates transcription
cAMP receptor protein (CRP)