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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
metabolic pathways that release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones
metabolic pathways that consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones
the energy of motion
stored energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transferred and transformed
1st law of thermodynamics
a measure of disorder or randomness
the amount of energy available to do work in a cell
free energy
reactions that occur spontaneously, releasing energy (energy of products is less than reactants)
reactions that acquire free energy from their surroundings (energy of products is greater than reactants)
the use of an exergonic reaction to power and endergonic reaction
energy coupling
a molecule composed of adenine, ribose, and a chain of 3 phosphate groups; energy is stored in the terminal phosphate bond
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to another molecule, energizing the other molecule
a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the reaction
a catalytic protein
the energy required to break bonds in reactant molecules, thus allowing a reaction to proceed
activation energy
the reactant that an enzyme acts upon
the small region of an enzyme to which the substrate actually binds
active site
a slight change in the shape of an enzyme caused by binding with its substrate
induced fit
nonprotein "helpers" of enzymes that may bind permanently or temporarily to the active site
organic cofactors
inhibitors that lower enzyme activity by binding to an enzyme's active site, thus blocking the substrate
competitive inhibitors
inhibitors that change enzyme shape by binding to a region other than the active site of the enzyme
noncompetitive inhibitors
a receptor site other than the active site on an enzyme to which regulator molecules may bind
allosteric site
the "switching off" of a metabolic pathway that occurs when its end product inhibits an enzyme in the pathway
feedback inhibition
occurs when one substrate molecule causes an enzyme to accept additional substrate molecules more readily
environmental factors that can both increase and decrease enzyme activity
temperature and pH
the breakdown of an enzyme to a point at which it is no longer functional
the temperature range at which a particular enzyme functions best
optimal temperature
the pH range at which a particular enzyme functions best
optimal pH
a molecule composed of adenine, ribose, and 2 phosphate groups
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
Change in free energy (G) =
Change in total energy (H) minus temperature (T) x entropy (S)
a reaction with a positive change in free energy (gain)
a reaction with a negative change in free energy (loss)
Does the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP result in a release or gain of energy?
release (-7.3kcal/mol)
Is phosphorylation an endergonic or exergonic reaction?