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65 Cards in this Set

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single-celled organisms that lack a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
prokaryotes
the taxonomic level above kingdom
domain
the three domains of living things
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
spherical-shaped prokaryotes
cocci
rod-shaped prokaryotes
bacilli
spiral-shaped prokaryotes
helical
a substance made up of polymers of modified sugars cross-linked by short polypeptides; found in cell walls of Bacteria but not Archaea
peptidoglycan
bacteria with simpler cell walls and high levels of peptidoglycan
Gram-positive
bacteria with complex cell walls, lipopolysaccharides, and low levels of peptidoglycan
Gram-negative
these cells stain light red with Gram stain
Gram-negative
these cells stain dark purple with Gram stain
Gram-positive
a protective sticky layer outside the cell wall of many prokaryotes
capsule
surface appendages/extensions that allow prokaryotes to adhere to one another or other surfaces
pili
movement toward or away from a stimulus
taxis
the region in prokaryotic cell where DNA is concentrated
nucleoid region
How would you describe the DNA of prokaryotes?
a single, double-stranded, circular molecule
small rings of DNA that prokaryotes can take in from their environment or other prokaryotes
plasmids
occurs when prokaryotic cells take up genes from their environment
transformation
the direct transfer of genes from one prokaryote to another
conjugation
occurs when viruses transfer genes from one prokaryote to another
transduction
resistant prokaryotic cells in a "dormant" state; can withstand extreme environmental conditions
endospores
chemicals that inhibit the growth of microorganisms
antibiotics
photosynthetic organisms
photoautotrophs
obtain energy using carbon dioxide as a carbon source and oxidizing inorganic substances
chemoautotrophs
use light to generate ATP but require organic carbon sources
photoheterotrophs
must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon
chemoheterotrophs
decomposers that absorb their nutrients from dead organic matter
saprobes
absorb nutrients from the body fluids of living hosts
parasites
the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia (a useable nitrogen source)
nitrogen fixation
use oxygen for cellular respiration and can't live without it
obligate aerobes
will use oxygen if present but can also perform fermentation in anaerobic situations
facultative anaerobes
organisms that are poisoned by oxygen
obligate anaerobes
a process in which inorganic molecules other than oxygen serve as final electron acceptors
anaerobic respiration
Which is the most parsimonious hypothesis:
1) photosynthesis evolved many times or
2) photosynthesis evolved once?
photosynthesis evolved once (this hypothesis is the simplest, requiring the least number of evolutionary changes)
SSU-rRNA
small-subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid
regions of SSU-rRNA in a group of organisms that have unique nucleotide sequences due to common ancestry
signature sequences
"lovers" of extreme environments
extremophiles
organisms that use carbon dioxide to oxidize hydrogen, producing methane as a waste product
methanogens
these live in very saline environments
halophiles
photosynthetic pigment found in halophile colonies
bacteriorhodopsin
these thrive in hot environments (60-80 degrees Celsius is usually optimum)
thermophiles
Domain of prokaryotes that contain peptidoglycan, one kind of RNA polymerase, and unbranched membrane hydrocarbons
Bacteria
Domain of prokaryotes that contain no peptidoglycan, several kinds of RNA polymerase, introns, and histones
Archaea
Which domain of prokaryotes is not susceptible to streptomycin and chloramphenicol?
Archaea
To which domain do the great majority of prokaryotes belong?
Bacteria
This major clade of Bacteria is gram-negative and includes 5 diverse subgroups
Proteobacteria
This major clade of Bacteria lack peptidoglycan and are obligate intracellular parasites
Chlamydias
This major clade of Bacteria are helical; many are free-living but some are pathogens
Spirochetes
This major clade of Bacteria includes all gram-positive forms and a few gram-negative relatives
Gram-positive Bacteria
This major clade of Bacteria are the only prokaryotes that perform plantlike (oxygenic) photosynthesis
Cyanobacteria
organisms that break down the organic molecules in dead organic material and wastes
decomposers
an ecological relationship between organisms of different species in direct contact with one another
symbiosis
the larger of 2 organisms in a symbiotic relationship
host
a symbiosis in which both organisms benefit
mutualism
a symbiosis in which one organism receives benefits while neither helping nor harming the other organism
commensalism
a symbiosis in which one organism benefits at the expense of another
parasitism
an organism that benefits at the expense of its host
parasite
pathogens that are not normally residents of a host but can cause illness in a weakened host
opportunistic pathogens
What are Koch's postulates for identifying a pathogen as the cause of a disease?
1) find the same pathogen in each diseased organism
2) isolate the pathogen from the organism and grow it in pure culture
3) transfer the pathogen from the culture to an organism, inducing the disease
4) isolate the same pathogen from the diseased experimental organism
proteins secreted by prokaryotes that produce disease symptoms in other organisms
exotoxins
components of the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria that cause disease symptoms in other organisms
endotoxins
the use of organisms to remove pollutants from water, air or soil
bioremediation
this is the most common mechanism of movement among prokaryotes
flagella
Which group of helix-shaped Bacteria move by rotating filaments embedded in their cell walls?
Spirochetes
What is the name for specialized nitrogen-fixing cells in cyanobacteria such as Anabaena?
heterocysts