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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cell division
continuity of life; based on the reproduction of cells
cell cycle
the life of a cell from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two
genome
a cells own DNA, or genetifc information
chromosomes
threadlike, gene carrying structure found in the nucleus; contains chromatin
somatic cells
all body cells except the reproductive cells
gametes
sperm and egg cells
chromatin
a DNA-protein complex organized into long thin fibers
sister chromatids
duplicated chromosomes
centromere
the narrow waist of a chromosome that connects the two sister chromatids; made of protein
Mitosis
the division of the nucleus
cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm
Meiosis
cell division that produces gametes
Mitotic (M) phase
shortest part of mitosis; includes mitosis and cytokiesis
interphase
accounts for 90% of the cell cycle; includes the G1, S, and the G2 phase
G1 phase
first growth phase; consists of a portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins
S phase
DNA synthesis
G2 phase
second growth phase; consist of a portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs
aster
mictrotubules that extend from the centromeres in radial rays
prophase
first subphase of mitosis; chromatin condense, mitotic spindle begins to forms, but the nucleolus and nucleus are still intact
prometaphase
second sunphase of mitosis; chromosomes appear, nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindles attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes
metaphase
third subphase of mitosis; spindle completes, and chromosomes are aligned at metaphase plate
anaphase
fourth subphase of mitosis; chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell
telophase
fifth and final sunphase of mitosis; daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has begun
kinetochore
located at the centromere region that connects the two chromtids
metaphase plate
imaginary plane that is equidistant btw the spindle's two poles
mitotic spindle
consist of fibers made of microtubules & accosiated proteins
cemtrosome
nonmembranous organelle that functions throughout the cell cycle to organize the cell's microtubules
cleavage
the pinching of the cytolasm
cleavage furrow
shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate
cell plate
double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell where the new cell wall forms
binary fission
the type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce. each dividing daughter cell receives a copy of the parental chromosome
origin of replication
the copies of the first replicated region
cell cycle control system
a cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
checkpoint
a critical control point where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle
G"zero" phase
nondividing stage
cyclin
a protein that gets its name from its cyclically fluctuating concentration in the cell
cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks)
a protein kinase that is active only when attached tp a particular cyclin
MPF
protein complex required for a cell t progress from late interphase to mitosis
growth factor
a protein released by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide
density-dependent inhibition
a phenomenon in which crowded cells stop dividing
anchorage dependence
to divide, cells must be attached to a substratum, such as the inside of a culture jar or the extracellular matrix of a tissue
transformation
the process that converts to a normal cell to a cancer cell
tumor
a mass of abmormal cells within otherwise normal tissue
benign tumor
abnormal cells that remain that remain at the original site
malignant tumor
cancerous cells that can spread and can impair functions
metastasis
the spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site