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64 Cards in this Set

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Visible light is passed through the specimen and then through glass lenses
Light Microscopes
a measure of clarity of the image
Resolving Power
most subcellular structures
Organelles
focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or into its surface
Electron Microscope
used mainly to study the internal ultrastructure of cells
Transmission Electron Microscope
especially used for detailed study of the surface of the sample
Scanning Electron Microscope
to take cells apart, separating the major organelles so that their functions can be studied
Cell Fractionation
semifluid substance within the membrane
Cytosol
does not contain a nucleus
Prokaryotic Cell
the DNA of a prokaryotic cell is concentrated here
Nucleoid
the entire region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
functions as a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen
Plasma Membrane
contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell
Nucleus
a netlike array of protein filaments
Nuclear Lamina
DNA organized along with proteins into a fibrous material
Chromatin
a prominent structure within the nondividing nucleus
Nucleolus
particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein
Ribosomes
many of the different membranes of the eukaryotic system
Endomembrane
cytoplasmic surface lacks ribosomes
Smooth ER
appears rough through the electron microscope
Rough ER
proteins that are covalently bonded to
glycoproteins
transit from one part of the cell to another
Transport Vesicles
center for manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping
Golgi apparatus
membrane-bound sac of hydrolytic enymes that the cell uses to digest macromolecules
Lysosome
engulfing smaller organisms or other food particles
Phagocytosis
formed by phagocytosis
Food Vacuoles
pump excess water out of the cell
Contractile Vacuoles
mature plants contain them
Central Vacuole
Membrane surrounding central vacuole
Tonoplast
sites of cellular respiration
Mitochondria
site of photosynthesis
Chloroplasts
infoldings on inner membrane
cristae
enclosed by the inner membrane
Mitochondrial Matrix
a family of closely related plant organelles
Plastids
flattened sacs
Thylakoids
a stack of thylakoids
Granum
fluid outside the thylakoids
Stroma
a specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a singular membrane
Peroxisome
a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
Cytoskeleton
the thickest cytoskeleton
Microtubules
the thinnest cytoskeleton
Microfilaments
fibers with diameters in middle range
Intermediate Filaments
a region often located near the nucleus
Centrosome
within the centrosome of an animal cell
Centrioles
locomotor appendages (longer)
Flagella
locomotor appendages (shorter)
Cilia
strucurally identical to a centriole
Basal Body
makes up motor molecules extending from each microtubule doublet to the next
Dynein
a globular protein
Actin
thicker filaments made of protein
myosin
extend and contract through the reversible assembly of actin subunits into microfilaments
Pseudopodia
a circular flow of cytoplasm within cells
Cytoplasmic Streaming
protects the plant cell, maintains its shaped, and prevents excessibe uptake of water
Cell Wall
a relatively thin and flexible wall first secreted by young plant cell
Primary Cell Wall
a thin layer rich in sticky polysaccharides called pectins
Middle Lamella
some cells add this between the plama membrane and the primary wall
Secondary Cell Wall
the main ingredients of this is glycoproteins secreted by the cells
Extracellular Matrix
form strong fiber outside the cell
Collagen
glycoproteins of another class
Proteoglycans
bind to recepter proteins
Fibronectins
receptor proteins of fibronectins
Integrins
perforations of plant cell walls
Plasmodesmata
fastens cells together into strong sheets
Desmosomes
provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent animal cells
Gap Junctions