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104 Cards in this Set

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In what ways does music serve different functions in different societies?
religious and civic ceremonies. rhythm to work to. entertainment
what are the names and dates of the various style periods?
Renaissance (1450- 1600)
Boroque (1600- 1750)
Classical (1750- 1825)
Romantic (1800- 1900)
Impression (1890-1920)
20th Century (1900-2000)
how was art music primarily used throughout the middle ages?
in church services
who was the major patron of the arts in the middle ages?
the church
Two well known Renaissance artists
Botticelli-, Michaelangelo
a cappella
the sixteenth century has come to be regarded as the golden age of the a capella style. the term refers to a vocal work without instrumental accompaniment
what occurs when continuous imitation is used?
polyphony in such works was based on a principle called continuous imitation. in this procedure, the motives are exchanged between vocal lines, the voices imitating one another so that the same theme or motive is heard now in the soprano or alto,now in the tenor or bass, resulting in a close-knit musical fabric capable of the most subtle and varied effects.
word painting
making the music reflect the meaning of the words was much favored in secular music.
modal
refers to various melodic and harmonic types that prevailed in the early and later Middle Ages.
tonal
which refers to the harmony based on major-minor tonality that came later.
syllabic text setting
with one note sung to each syllable of text.
melismatic
with long groups of notes set to a single syllable of text.Descended from the elaborate improvisations heard in Middle Eastern Music, became an expressive feature of Gregorian chant and exerted a strong influence on subsequent Western music.
In which cultures does the use of chant occur?
Gregorian chant, jewish cantorial chant, Islamic call to prayer, buddhist throat sinigng, santeria chant
Who was the major patron of the arts in the Middle ages
the church
Renaissance motet
sacred form with a single Latin text, for use in the Mass and other religious services. Motets in praise of the Virgin Mary were extremely popular because of hte many religious groups all over Europ devoted to Marian worship. These works, written for three, four, or more voices were sometimes based ona chant or other cantus firmus.
Ordinary of the Mass
Sections of the Roman Catholic Mass that remain the same from day to day throughout the church year
The proper of the mass
sections of the roman catholic mass that vary from day to day throughout the church year according to the particular liturgical occasion
what are the five basic sections of the musical setting of a mass?
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
Chanson
in the fifteenth century, the chanson was the favored genre at the courts of the dukes of Burgundy and the kings of France, all great patrons of the arts. Chansons were usually written for three or four voices. they were set to the courtly love verses of the French Renaissance poets.
madrical
in the madrical, Renaissance composers found one of their chief forms for secular music. The sixteenth-century madrigal was an aristocratic form of poetry and music that flourished at the Italian courts, wehre it was a favorite diversion of cultivated amateurs. the text consisted of a short poem of lyric or reflective character, often including the emotional words for weeping, sighing, tremblign, and dything. which the italian madrigalists set with a wealth of expression
how many notes are in a chromatic scale
12 half tones
how many notes are in a major and minor scale
seven notes
what is a key
a group of related tones that revolve around the central tone, tonic, or keynote, to which they ultimately gravitate.
you would find pentatonic scales in music from what parts of the world?
Africa, Far East, Native America
in what music would you find microtones?
jazz selections, cajun dance tunes
raga
in music of india, the scale formations called ragas contain certain pitches that are heard in only one direction. these scales also have extra-musical associations connected with certain emotions, colors, seasons, times of day, or magical properties.
transposition
the act of shifting all the tones of a musical composition a uniform distance to a different pitch level
modulation
the process of passing from one key to another.
name three basic triads
tonic, dominant, subdominant
who were the camareta
florentine writers, artists, and musicians. Aristocratic humanists who aimed to resurect the musical-dramatic art of ancient Greece. Deduced that music must heighten the emotional power of the text. Led to the way of the opera through emotionally depicting dramas.
basso continuo
employed two instrumentalists for the accompaiment. performance group witha bass, chordal instrument (harpsichord, organ) and one bass melody instrument (cello, Bass)
figured bass
Baroque practice consisting of an independent bass line that often includes numerals indicating the harmony to be supplied by the performer.
manjor and minor tonality
one of the most significant changes in music history. the thrust to the keynot, or tonic, became the most powerful force in music, and each chord could assume its function in relation to the key center.
equal tempera ment
greatly increased the range of harmonic possiblitites that were aviailable to the composer. by slightly adjusting or tempering the mathematicall pure intervals within the octave to equalize the distance between adjacent tones, it became possible to play in vevery major and minor key without experieneing unpleasant sounds.
continuous melody
a movement may start with a striking musical figure that then spins out ceaselessly. in vocal music, wide leaps and the use of chormatic tones helped create meoldies that were hightly expressive in text.
terraced dynamics
used by Baroque keyboard instruments, such as harpsichord and organ, inherently produceds a kind of graduated, or terraced, gynamics by the use of different registrations.
Doctrine of the Affections
Baroque doctrine of the union of text and music
Ritornello
short, recurring instruemental passage found in both the aria nd the baroque concerto
what role did women play in baroque society
operas.
castrati
the rise of ther opera saw the development of a phenomenal vocal technicque, exemplified in th ealry eighteenth century. boys were castrated in order to preserve the soprano or alto register of his voice for the rest of his life. acquired an incredibly agile voice with enormous range. unrivalled by most singers today. lung power of male with brilliance of the female upper register. associated with heroic male role. farinelli, most famous. abolished after the French Revolution.
improvisation
singers and players alike added thier own embellishments to what was written down as their creative contribution. the practice was so widespread that baroque music sounded quite different in performace from what was notated on the page.
recitative
solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text, often resulting in a disjunct vocal style; found in opera, cantata, and oratoria
aria
lyric song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, generally expressing intense emotion; found in opera, cantat, and oratorio
libretto
text or script of an opera, preprared by a librettist
name three major composers from the Baroque period.
Bach, Handel, Vivaldi
opera
music drama that is generally sung throughout, combining the resources of vocal and instrumental music with poetry and drama, acting and pantomime, scenery and costumes.
oratorio
large-scale dramatic genre originating in the Baroque, based o n a text of religious or serious character, performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra; similar to opera but without scenery, constumes, or action.
suite
multimovment work made up of a series of contrasting dance movements, generally all in the same key.
fugue
polyphonic form popular in in the Baroque era in which one or more themes are developed by imitative counterpoint.
cantata
a work for one or more solo vocalists with instrumental accompaniement (chorus was later added to the genre) based on one of three poetic genres, lyric, dramatic, narrative. earliest cantatas short and intimate, and ususally based on a secular text, they genrally consisted of several sections set as recitatives and arias, among the impoartan proponents of this genreis the singer Barbara Strozzi.
sacred cantata
baroque cantats could be based on either secular or sacred themes. the late-Baroque master J.S. Bach wrote both types, but it is his scred Luteran cantats that are his enduring legacy. In the Lutheran tradition, to which Bach belonged, the sacred cantat was an integral part of the church service, related, along with the sermon and prayers that followed it, to the Gospel for the day.
solo concerto
the concerto for solo insturemtn and an accompanying instrumental group, lent itself to experiments in sonority and virtuoso playing, especially in the and of the Italian master Antonio Vivaldi.The violin was the instrument featured most frequenly in the solo concerto, which usually consisted of three movements, in teh sequence Allegro-adagio-allegro.
concerto grosso
based on the opposistion between a small group of instruments, the concertino, and a larger group, the tutti, or ripieno FULL. Bach captured the spirti of the concerto grosso in his six Brandenburg Concertos, written for presentation to the Margrave Christian o fBrandengurg.
what is meant by the subject, answer, and countersubject of a fugue.
subject: the main theme, constitutes the unifying idea, the focal point of interest in the contrapuntal web. stated alone at the beginning in one of the voices
Answer: imitates the subject in another voice.
Counter subject: the first voice continues while the answer starts.
composers of the baroque time
monteverdi, purcell, barbara strozzi, corelli, vivaldi, handel, bach
composers of the classical time
haydn, mozart, beethoven, schubert
melody of baroque time
continuous melody with wide leaps, chromatic tones for emotional effect
melody of classical time
symmetrical melody in balanced phrases and cadences; tuneful diatonic, with narrow leaps
rhythmn of baroque time
single rhythm predominant; steady, energetic pulse; freer in vocal music
rhythm of classical music
dance fhythms favored; regularly recurring accents
harmony baroque
chromatic harmony for expressive effect; major-minor system established with brief excursions to other keys
harmony classical
diatonic harmony favored; tonic-dominant relationship expanded, becomes basis for large-scale form
texture of baroque
monodic texture(early Baroque); polyphonic texture(late Baroque); linear-horizontal dimension
texture classical
homophonic texture; chordal-vertical dimension
instrumental genres baroque
fugue, concerto grosso, trio sonata, suite, chaconne, prelude, passacaglia
instrumental genres classical
symphony, solo concerto, solo sonata, string quartet, other chamber music genres
vocal genres baroque
opera, mass, oratorio, cantata
vocal genres classical
opera, mass, oratorio
form baroque
binary form predominant
form classical
ternary form becomes importatn, sonata allegro form developed
dynamics baroque
subtle dynamic nuances; forte/piano contrats; echo effects
dynamics classical
continuously changing dynamics through crescendo and decrescendo
tibre of baroque
continuous tone color throughout one movement
timbre classical
chaning tone colors from one section to the next
permorming forces baroque
string orchestra, with added woodwinds, organ and harpsichord in use
permorming forces classiccal
orchestra standardized into four choirs; introduction of clarinet, trombone, ;rise of pinao to prominence
emotion baroque
`single affection;emotional exuberance and theatricality
emotion classical
emotional balance and restraint.
absolute music
pure music. form is especially important, since there is no prescribed story or text to hold the music together. the story is the music itself, so its shape is of primary concern for the composer, the performer, and the listener.
sonata
an instrumental work for one or two instruments, consisting of three ro four contrasting movements. the movemtns followed the basic mulitmovement cycle described earlier in teh discussion of string quartet, symphony, and concerto. usually 3 movements
what happens int eh exposition of the sonata-allegro
opening section of sonata-allegro form, statement, generally presents the two opposing keys and their respective themes.
developemnet of sonata-allegro
conflict and action, the essence of drama. conflicts erupt and the action reahces maximum intensity. foreiggn keys. buiilding tension
recapitulation
the development has run its course, tensions lets up. a bridge passage leads back to the key of the tonic. restatement.
theme and variations form
variation os ruling principle. the theme is stated at the outset, so that hte audience learns the basic idea that serves as the point of departure. tthemes is apt to be a small two-or three-part idea, simple in character to allow room for elaboration. each variation sets forth the idea with some new modification-one my say a new disguise. found in second movement
what occurs in a minuet and trio form?
an ABA form (A= minuiet; B=Trio) in a moderate triple meter; often the third movement of the clasical multimovment cycle
scherzo-
replaced the minuet. generally the third movmeent but occasionaly appearing as the second; it is usuallky the 3/4 meter. three-part form. faster pace and more vigorous rhythm than the minutet.
rondo
often ends the clasical sonata and symphony. a lively movement filled with the spirti of the dance. distinguishing characteristic is therecurrence of a musical idea, the rondo theme, or refrain, in alternation with contrasting episodes musch like the ritornello procedure of the Baroque era.
multimovment cycle: first movment
character:long and dramatic
Form:sonata-allegro
Tempo:allegro
mulitmovement cycle second movemnet
character: slow and lyrical
form; theme and variations; sonata form ABA or rondo
Tempo: andante, adagio, largo
multimovement cycle: third movement
character: dance like minuet (18th century) scherzo (19th century)
form: minuet trio, scherzo trio
tempo: allegretto allegro
multimovment cycle: fourth movmenet
Characher: lively,"happy ending" (18th century) epic-dramatic with triumphal ending (19th century)
form: sonata-allegro
sonata-rondo
theme and varations
tempo: allegro, vivace , presto
what basically unifies the various movments of a multimovment composition?
connected by key. thematic linkage in 19th century. cyclical structure: a theme from earlier movements reappears in the later ones as a kind of motto or unifying thread.
natural horns
wihtout valves
patronage system
gave musicians econic securty and provided a socail framwork within which they could function. offered important advantages to the great masters who sucessfully adjusted to its requirements, as the career of haydn clearly shows. on the other hand, mozart's tragic end, as we will see illustrates how heavy the pnalty could be for those unable to make that adjustment.
encore
an extra piece or the repetition of a piece performed in resonce to audience applause.
chamber music
music for asmall ensemble. one player to a part.
opus number
work number
K. usually included in the programming of Mozar'ts compositions
refers to the catalogue of MOzart's works by Ludwig Kochel, who numbered them all in what he determined to be the order of their composition.
describe the typical orchestra of the classical period
the classical masters established hte orchestra as we know it today. an ensemble of the four instrumental familes. the heart of the orchestra was hte string choir. woodwinds assist strings. brass provides melody. timpani supplied rhythm. 32-40 players. small since still in salons.
in which musical genres did haydn excell
symphony and string orchestra
who was haydn's patron
Esterhazys family
symphony
lart work for orchestra, generally in three or four movments
typical tempos for each movement?
First: slow introduction, allegro
Second:largo, adagio, andante
Third: moderate
Fourth: allegro molto or presto
concerto
instrumental genre in several movments for solo instrument (or instrumental group) and orchestra