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237 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a trill?
rapid alteration between two notes a step apart
What is an ornament?
added notes of other small changes in pitch that dont change the overall character og the melody as mush as they enhance or ornament it
What is a motive?
a short fragment that is repeated at certain points.
What is a theme?
an entire melody recognizable as a discrete entity.
What is a structure or form?
name given to the very largest levels of musical architecture.
What is a movement?
movements are set apart by actually stopping the music between each one.
What is a repitition?
recurrence of melodic motives and themes.
What is strophic?
a song that repeats a group of meoldoes phrases over and over but wuth different words.
What is a refrain?
repeat of a section with the same words
What is the Qur'an?
the holy book of Islam
Who is Hafiz?
irans most favortie poet
What are the elements of Middle Eastern Music?
elaborate melodies and melismas, improvisation based on basic tones or melodies, heterophony, phythms based on beat patterns, the use of quater tones.
What are melisman?
sung melodies with many notes to a syllable
What is heterophony?
the simultaneuous performance of different elaborations of the same melody.
What is the jewish diaspora?
the scattering of Jews from their ancestral homeland in Palestine.
What is a ghawazi?
women who dance for entertainment
What is a musiqa?
the arabic word for music, but never uesed in a religious context
What is a qira'ah or tilawah?
chanting of Quar'an versus
What is the adhan?
call to prayer
What is the mu'adhdhin?
singers of the adhan
What is dhikr?
rememberance
What is dervishes?
Sufi dance tradition of the Mevlevi of turkey. dancers who whirl around to achieve spiriutal union.
What are 'ud?
chordophone from the middle east
What are tanburs?
long-necked chordophone from the middle east
What is a zagharit?
a ululation, high cry rapidly trilled with the tongue
How do players play the aerophone and what is it?
circular breathing, the player blows out while simultaneous breathing in through his nose in order to achieve an uninterupted air stream.
What is transposition?
vary the melody bu altering the pitch
What is modulation?
vary the meldoy by changoing the key
What is theme and variation form?
the study of the possibilities of variation
What is Rhythm?
describes how music is organized in time.
What is tarab?
the transcendent emotional experience
What is responsorial?
alternating leader and group singing. call and response.
What is antiphonal?
two alternating groups singing
What is echoi?
art music of improvisation and compositions based on modes
What is maqam?
art music from the resurgance of classical musical in the late 19 century and the early 20 century
What are tetrachords?
segments of four notes
What are quater-tones?
an interval half as wide as a semitone
What are jins?
arabic theoreoists build up scales from smaller segments
What are taqsim?
non-pulsatile improvisations. represents maqam in its purest form.
What are Layali?
vocal from in which melismas are used on syllables.
What is the performance of taqisms?
a journey through a sequence of emphasized pitches,
What is sayr?
the form that uses the principal tones of the maqam scales
What is iqa'?
rhythm of arabic music. meters are used to defined by duration, accents, and level of accents
What is maqsum?
a simple quadruple pattern. iqa' pattern.
What is wahdah?
iqa' patter. simple quadruple meter, but a different sound.
What is a suite?
a series of songs and instumentasl pieces unified by their referance to a single maqam.
What are takht?
traditional medium for the arabic suite of and ensemble of 5 musicians
What are mawwal?
a partly improvised song in colloquial
What are qasida?
a song that sets a poem in classical arabid language
What is an sama'i?
an instrumental piece with a refrain that begins in a ten-beat iqa', moves to a triple meter, and ends in the original 10 beat
What is tahmilah?
an instrumental piece in which the various instruments take turns playing solo improvisation, alternating with a refrain,
Waht is an firqa?
a takht of large ensembles (20 or more musicians)
What is sha'bi?
movement of the working class and often socially consious
What is al-jil?
modern pop music similar to western sounterparts.
What is nashid?
ali-jil with explicity islamic lyrics
What is tarab?
musical ecstasy
What is the dastgah?
iranian classical improvisation
What is gusheh?
short relative melodies that compose a dastgah
What is a radif?
the entire corpus of dasgah
What are chahar mezrab?
strongly rhythmic melodies
What is a pishdaramad?
introductory piece for ensemble in duple or triple meter
What is tasnif?
a composed song in fixed meter accompanied by a soloist or ensemble
What is a reng?
ensemble music in a dance rhthym
What is a tombak?
goblet drum
What is motreb?
musicians that perform ligt classical, dance, and traditional entertainment music
What is mahur?
popular dastgah
What is Levites?
hereditary case of professional musicians
shofar
a rams horn trumpet
cantillation
a standard method of chanting biblical texts
ta'amim
the many different melodic formulas fro cantillation are indicated by signs
cantor
single singer who performs most music of the temple
sephardic
jewish tradition who settled in spain adn portugal
ashkenazi
jewish tradition who settled in central adn eastern europe
hazzanut
non-pulsaile songs based on certain scales and collections of melodic motives
shteygers
modes of he ashkenazi cantoral tradition are complex and include charachteristic motives and tonal relationships used in hazzanut improvisations
nigun
songs whose words limits the ineffable feeling of joy
klezmorim
jewish folk musicians
parlando rubato
popular songs of eastern european tradition
romance or romancero
popular genre among jews
beat
regular division of time
non-pulsatile
no beat
quasi-pulsatile
notes are more or less the same length, but rhythm is free so that it is hard to pin down a constant pulse
pulsatile
beat
non-metric
non-pulsatile, but it does have rhythm
tempo
rate of the beae
accelerando
increase the rate of the beat
ritardando or rallentando
slowing of the rate of the beat
meter
the ways beats are organized in time
triple meter
beats are grouped in three
duple meter
beats that are grouped in two
compound meter
beat is divided into three
simple meter
beat is divided into two
syncopation
rhythm in which the metrical stress of a note is displaced in the meter so that the emphasis occurs on normally unstresssed beats
accent
emphasis given tos single note
timbre
the quality of an instruments sound
insturmentation
choice of instruments that play a certain piece
orchestration
art of combining the insturments in different ways for musical effect
heterogenous
different instruments
homogeneous
same insturments
mandalas
elaborate symmetrical paintings that serve as objects of conemplation
mantra
chanting of cosmic tones in ritual formulas
epic songs
sung by specially trained bards, narrations can grand mythic poems
multiphonic singing
remarkable vocal technique in which a single singer can produce two or threee tones at once
partials
is what a singer produces to sound like a separate whistleing sounds
tone-countour melodies
lacks a convential melody made u of discrete variations in pitch, tone-contour melodies of chants, loudness, and slides between tiny pitch differences
shamans
practitioners of Tibet's indigineous religion, Bon
dung-chen
massive trumpets
rul-mo
cymbols that control the rhythm
dbyangs
chants where the melodies consist of subtle changes in timbre, loudness, and sliding pitches
nga chin
a kind of double headed bass drum
brdung
the series of accelerating strikes on the cymbol
melismas
many notes to a single syllable
sgra-snyan
a lute with a long unfretted neck
lhamo
ametuer troupes also perform sotries from the Gesar epic in a form of theater
nangma adn toshe
the art music of tibet
yangqin
the hammered dulcimer of china
ger
the large round felt covered tent that is the traditional home of mongolians
urtyn duu
mongolian long song
bogino duu
mongolian short songs
tuul'
epic songs of the mongols
stropically
each section of an epic song, repeating melodies for the versus
morin huur
a fiddle that supports the singer heterotrophically
multiphonic singing
prodice more that one pitch simeltaneously
hoomii, khoomei
clear melodies
program music
provoke images of the mind by envoking emotions, memories, ect
khomuz
jaws harp
morin huur
large bowed instrument of the lute type
topshuur
a two stringed unfretted lute, but hel laterally and plucked
limba
small, portable, transverse bamboo flute
texture
musical characteristics that describe the relative importance and distributoin of the various instrumental or vocal parts
monophony
one sound
parallel octaves
two differnt pitches being sung simeltaneously, in monophony
homophony
single melody supported by a harmony
polyphony
several melodies of more or less equal focus at the same time
round, canon
singers sing the same meldoy at staggered time intervals
imitative polyphony
one line imitates the melody in another line
heterophony
simaltaneous variations
drone
long, constant pitch
dynamics
the use of loudness as a musical insturnment
cresendo
gradually louder
decresendo
gradually softer
resonator
vibrating part
sympathetic vibration
ghost sound casued by a plucked string vibrating a unplucked string tuned to the same pitch
What are the ways a instuement can be classified?
chordophone, aerophone, membranophone, idiophone, electrophone
chordophone
string unstruemnts, vibrating string
aerophone
wind intstruments, a column of air within the instruments makes the sound
membranophone
a membrane (skin) stretched over a resonaor or frame makes the sound
idiophone
the entire instrument vibrates to make one sound
electrophone
makes a sound with a loudspeaker
bridge
used to lift the string up over the body of an instrument os that it virbrates freely
fret
intermediate bridge
glissando
sliding pitch
whammy bar
modern innovation used on electric guitars to slide the pitch up and down
course
collection of adjacent strings associated with a particular pitch
gharana
a particular school of vocal instrumental performance in India's classical music traditions
drone
extended pitch
mantras
repeated scriptures, prayers, or phonetic formulas that through repition, enhance ones karma or predisposition to goodness.
vedas
unmetered songs of devotion and ritual that form the oldest books of the hindu religion
hindustani
northern india
karnatic
southern india
what are the charachteristics os indian music?
melodic improvisation by a soloist, accompaniment by a druummer, improvisation based on raga, cyclic conception of meter, drone
accompaniment by a druummer
a single drummer using palms and fingers no sticks to play elaborate patterns to accompany classical performances
melodic improvisation by a soloist
improv of a soloist playing a melodic instrument
improvisation based on raga
improv of a raga
raga
the collection of guidelines for a particular melodic improvisation
cyclic conception of meter
made up of cycles of beat groups in a system called tala
drone
constantly sounding pitch; string instrument such as a tamburu
raga
the meldoci basis of the piece
tala
metrical basis of a piece
bandish
ragas precomposed songs or themes in northern india
gitam
ragas precomposed songs or themes in southern india
guru
indiviual teacher
gharana
a particular school or vocal or instrument performance
sitar
a plucked lute with frets
sarod
a plucked lute without frets
sarangi
a bowed lute
bansri
a transverse flute
bin
an ancient and venerated plucked stick-zither
harmonium
a portable reed organ
tabla
a pair of small drums
mrdangam
a single wih two heads
drone
long or unchanging note
tambura
an indian string instrument normally plays the drone in northern india
sruti box
a specialized reed organ in south india that normally plays the drone
taraf
sympathetic strings
What components does raga include?
a tuning system, scale system, tonic, certain melodic motives that are associated with a particular raga, certain ornamentation practices, extramusical association
alap
non-pulsatile intro
how many pitches does raga use
7
sa
is the tonic or home pitch
sruti
microtone, a verysmall interval
melakarta
all the posible seven note scales that can be used
semitone
interval between any two adjacent notes in the complex twelve-tone per octave tuning system
komal
lowered tone
tivra
raised tone
shuddh
unaltered tone
that
a system of 32 possible heptatonic scales
arohana
ascnding scales
avarohana
descending scale
chalan
more expanded representation of a ragas characteristic rising and falling melody that includes its characteristic motvies
vadi
principal tone
samvadi
secondary principal tone usually 3 or 4 pitches above vadi
gamak or gamaka
characteristic ornamentation
pakar
uniquely associated with certain ragas
gat
metered section
cadences
ends of phrases
rasa
specific feelings that art can express
ragamala
paintings that depict certain scenes that illustrate the mood of a raga
yoga
spiritual discipline
quanitative accents
syllables are accented not through loudness but by holding them twice as long as unaccented syllables
tala or tal
cycling rhythms tha define repeating meters
sam
stresss is usually placed on the first beat
khali
opposite of sam, deemphsize beat of a cycle
tali
beats that are neither sam or khali, but are vibhag
theka
pattern in bols in northern india
sokattu
pattern of bols in southern india
alap
the non-pulsatile section that begins a classical indian performance
scat
jazz vocalists improvisation
qawal
important type of relisgous songs
qawwali
wandering sufi mystics who sang devotional islamic songs
dholak
small hand held drum
dhrupad
grand but austere vocal froms
pakhavaj
ancient double headed drum
khyal
most prominent vocal genre in hindustani
tans
fast scalar runs
tarana
fast scat section
thumri
most important light classical vocal genre
kriti
most popular of the major vocal forms of south indian performances
pallavi
refrain of kriti music
caranam
the verse of kriti music
anupallavi
contrasting section to krtit
ragam-tanam-pallavi
a long and virtuosic form asssociated with court patronage
bhajan
popular devotional songs
tillana
popular dance songs
kirtana
songs hat include improv and form and intermediate step
cinna melm
instrumental ensemble of the Kerala state
khamak
string drum
minimalism
a style in which compersors experimentad with a minimum of means