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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lied, "Berlin" School
- "Berlin" School (Northern Germany)
- strophic
- Johann von Goetrie--text more important than music
Lied, Vienna
- Southern Germany
- Beethoven
Lied, Beethoven
- not very important as a lieder composer
- Northern Germany style
- simple and direct
- "To the distant Beloved,"--the first song cycle
Franz Shubert (1797-1828)
- most influential lieder of the 19th c.
- wrote over 800 songs
- considered greatest songwriter of all time
- establishes the art song as a 19th c. genre
- 3rd relation modulation
- attracted to subjects with nature
- accompaniments have a descriptive quality
strophic
- same melody to each verse of text
- Heidenroslein
modified strophic
- significant changes usually related to the text
- change the melody or the accompaniment
- change the key (major/minor)
- Gretchen und Spinnrade
scena type
- used for longer text
- piece is organized into sections (tempo, key changes)
- music alternates between 2 writings for voice
- Der Wanderer
through-composed style
- music changes throughout whole song
- Ballad style
- similar to scena but not divided into sections
- usually telling a story
Der Erlkonig
- narrator starts/ ends the piece
- 3 characters:
- father (low register)
- son (higher tenor, minor)
- King (pianissimo, major)
Science and the Irrational
- 19th c. as an important era of discovery
- simultaneous fascination with supernatural phenomenon
- effort to find musical language capable of expressing new and strange ideas
- led to expanded harmonic and melodic language and orchestral color
Nationalism and Internationalism
- accentuation of national styles in music
- importance of native folk melodies as expression of the national soul
- as a reaction to political suppression
- use of exotique effects in works for picturesque color
Melodic attributes of Schubert's Lieder
-Folk melodies
-Romantic lyricism
-dramatic works
Musical style of Schubert's Lieder
-harmonic color
-modulations and tonality underline drama of a song text
-chromatic coloring within a prevailing diatonic sound
-typical modulations (tonic to flat-key)
Schubert's piano accompaniment
-pictorial qualities
Formal Elements
-strophic form
-modified strophic form
-through-composed settings
Schumann's Lieder
-Schumman's 1st publ. songs appear in 1840
-love for literature, specific about text
Brahm's Lieder
-importance of folk songs
-harmonically more dissonant and darker
Gretchen und Spinnrade
- Schubert
- specific instruments to to make sound of spinning wheel
- sudden stops/repeating notes, suggest particular feelings
Der Erlkonig
- Schubert
- uses narrator to speak to the audience
Der Freischutz
- Weber
- includes magic forests, curses, magic bullets
- stress on the SUPERNATURAL
Tristan und Isolde
- Wagner
- gesamptkunstwerk
- 2-fold nature of drama
when was the piano invented?
- Bartolomeo Cristofori
- 1720's
Medieval Dates
400-1400
Renaissance Dates
1400-1600
Baroque Dates
1600-1750
Bach Dates
1685-1750
Handel Dates
1685-1759
Classical Dates
1750-1800
Haydn Dates
1732-1809
Mozart
1756-1791
Beethoven Dates
- 1st Period Classical (1776-1802)
- 2nd Period Romantic (1803-1813)
- 3rd Period Romantic (1818-1827)
Romantic Dates
1800-1900
Schubert Dates
1797-1828
Schuman Dates
1810-1856
Brahms Dates
1833-1897
Wagner
1813-1883
Verdi
1813-1901
Venetian School
- composers working in Venice from around 1550-1620
- innovations help define the end of musical Renaissance to begining of Baroque
- development of polychoral style
- housed St. Marks Cathedral
- founded originally by Adrian Willaert
- Andrea & Giovanni Gabrieli
-
Gabrieli's and the Venetian School
- marked the peak of development
- wrote works for multiple choirs, brass, string and organ
- works were first to include dynamics
first to include specific instrumentation
Symphony of Psalms
- Igor Stravinsky
- best represent neo-classicist style
- composed for choir and orchestra
- performed in Latin
- 1st mvt=prelude
- 2nd mvt=double fugue
- 3rd mvt="Ascension"