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55 Cards in this Set

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Rhythm
organization of sounds in time; includes tempo, meter, note durations
tempo
speed of basic beat
meter
patterned groupings of beats
simple meter vs. compound meter
2 parts; 3 parts
pitch
highness or lowness of sound; use A-G
frequency
scientific term for pitch
vocal ranges
soprano, alto, tenor, bass
tonality
employed in most Western music composed between 1600 and 1900; general system of musical organization around a tonic pitch
key
a specific set of pitches organized around a tonic
modulation
process of changing from one key to another
dynamic
how loud/soft; ff, f, mf, fp, p, pp
amplitude
scientific term for dynamic
rythmic shape
direction a melody takes as it turns upward or downward or remains static
texture
relationships among simultaneously occurring musical events
homophony
one main melody with supordinate accompanimant OR all parts have same rhythm
form
repeating (AA) variation (AA') or contrast (AB)
most Baroque musicians were employed by...
aristocratic courts or the church
early Baroque peroid
17th century, earliest operas
Baroque operas grew out of
Renaissance Humanist desire to bring back Greek music, present poetic texts dramatically
aesthetic aim of late Baroque music
1700-1750; move the passions; keep listener in a single frame of mind by having one musical idea thru tight form; tension between STRONG EMOTION and TIGHT FROM
Doctrine of the Affections
one musical idea in tight form
Baroque music appealed to... and represented...
educated according to Western thought; European belief in human reason, emotional expression was built into music
opera
drama set to music
aria
musically elaborate, highly structured pieces for soloist and orchestra
recitative
a simple, less structured musical style for soloist and basso continuo, highly dependent on word-rhythm; Greek power
ground bass
repeating pattern of pitches, used to organize a piece of music
basso continuo
several instruments all play the same bass line, and some add imporvised chords
da capo aria from
ABA'
fugue
systematic imitative polyphony used to organize a piece
concerto... individual movements based on...
3-movement piece for orchestra and soloist; ritornello-solo form (orchestra plays ritornellos) with multiple musical ideas, organized by key structure
Viennese music... Vienna composers...
Classical period music; in lit Greeks and Romans were emulated; Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
asthetic aim of Classical-period music
Enlightenment principles, to please and delight EVERYONE
bourgeoisie
middle class
Classical-period musical elements
homophony with strong melodies and strong harmony; frequent starts and stops; various musical ideas
Classical-period appealed to
educated European audience with principles of Western though; belief in human reason; emotional expression built into music
opera and oratorio, Classical composers used
aria and recitative same way Baroque composers had
plot of Marriage of Fiagaro reflects
waning of aristocracity in late 18th cent; realistic characters and situations, but still FORMAL POETRY
Classical-peroid orchestras
30-45 players total; strings provide core sound; winds add variey in timbre
timbre
tone color; specific to actual instrument; size, shape, proportions
sonata form
MOVEMENT 1; based on dramatic opposition of 2 keys; deal with exposition, development, recapitulation
sanota form: exposition
presentation of 2 keys
sanota form: development
harmonic instability
sanota form: recapitulation
key conflic resolved
minuet and trio from
MOVEMENT 3; minuet (AA BA'BA') - trio (CC DC'DC') - minuet (ABA')
Beethoven's music
intended for concert halls; attention to timbre and replacement of Minuet and Trio by Scherzo
scherzo
3/4 meter; scherzo - tri - scherzo faster pace and vigorous rhythm
Symphony No. 5
created mounmentality; longer movements; join scherzo and finale = cohesive, dramait opposition of minor and major modes
Begli occhi
Strozzi; second half of 17th
dido and aeneas
Purcell; second half of 17th
Messiah
Handel; first half of 18th
spring
Vivaldi; first half of 18th
C-minor prelude; the well-tempered clavier
Bach; first half of 18th
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
Mozart; second half of 18th
Marriage of Fiago
Mozart; second half of 18th
Symphony No. 5
Beethoven; fist half of 19th