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119 Cards in this Set

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Imitative polyphony
(ex: opening of Josquin's Ave Maria)
expands to secular music of 16th c.
Expansion of the world in the 16th c
Imperialism, new wealth (rise of bourgeois class), absolute monarchy emerges, intellectual gap narrows (availability of books), rise of capitalism, expansion of technology, mercator map projections, optical theory, strong national states
optical theory
development of microscopes and telescopes subdued universe and microworld
humanist movement
16th c
love for antiquity, especially of ancient literary text, focus on human achievement
ladder of salvation
replaced by humanism with great man theory;
must "climb" from hell or purgatory to heaven
great man theory
replaced ladder of salvation;
humans deserve to be honored;
ex: Renaissance tombs have life size, detailed statues
imitation
means of humanism;
imitate human form in sculpture, imitation in music
Humanism through church culture
Josquin's Ave Maria; Palestrina's Counter-Reform music
Humanism through secular culture
rhetorical eloquence through return of what was supposed as Greek music & theory, close alliance of music with tragedy;
ex: Epitaph of Seikilos
Madrigal
piece for solo voices setting a poem and combining elements of the motet, especially imitation, with elements of popular homophonic folk song
rise of madrigal
music as a form of good manners and social consciousness, music moves from quadrivium to trivium, new bourgeois culture and printing, new can-do, "reckless" spirit of the age
trivium
music becomes associated with the rhetorical arts, verbally-oriented
techniques of madrigals
"word painting," verbally oriented, used "madrigalisms" (cliches), chromaticism
Musica Transalpina
brought Italian madrigals to England
Thomas Weelkes
wrote collection for Elizabeth I, Triumps of Oriana (including As Vesta Was from Latmos)
Musical instruments for madrigal
Hauts (loud), bas (soft), often dance-oriented
pavane
genre of music that is slow, gliding, duple meter
gaillard
genre of music that is fast, leaping, triple meter
Francis Bacon
inductive method, based on evidence
Rene Descartes
deductive method, using logic, reason, and math
universal laws
govern both micro and macrocosms, need instruments to reveal
Johannes Kepler
proves that orbit of planets are elliptical
Galileo Galilei
acceleration/gravity
Marin Mersenne
string frequencies
Isaac Newton
laws of motion, focus on for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Canopy at St. Peters
sculpted by Bernini, characterized by lavish ornamentation and monumental size meant to astonish
David
sculpted by Bernini, dynamic, tense, actively telling a story (in contrast to Michelangelo's static version), meant to be seen from all angles
Ecstasy of St. Theresa
sculpted by Bernini, spectacular sense of her rapture, hidden upper window bathed statue in light, sense of movement, men are watching and commenting on experience
Painting in the rise of the Baroque age
overly sensual, gruesome, dramatic, contrasting colors, tension between dark/light, contorted figures
Artemisia Gentileschi
woman who painted Judith Beheading Holofernes
Golden Age of literature
Shakespeare-Racine, dramatic poetry (such as Tasso, Guarini)
Florentine Camerata
group of intellectuals centered around Count Bardi, sought to re-establish the dramatic singing of Greek Theater
Girolamo Mei
humanist/philologist, part of Florentine camerata
Vincenze Galilei
part of the Florentine camerata; thought since Greek tragedy is sung throughout w/ no polyphony or choir, only solo singing, thought vocal melody should imitate natural speech;
music should emote one particular affect that influences the audience;
lament becomes focal point/climax
Jacopo Peri
rival of Caccini, singer, organist who composed La pellegrina and Erudice
Giulio Caccini
rival of Peri, famous singer, composed Le Nuove Musiche, and Erudice
Monody
solo singing of emotional text with limited arrangement
Basso continuo
one or two instruments (low strings, keyboard); keyboard reads figured bass
Figured bass
numerical shorthand for "realizing" the harmonic accompaniment
Earliest "opera"
created for wealthy Italian patrons, lavish set/costumes, pastoral or mythological subjects, private performances, dance
Claudio Monteverdi
composed the early opera: Orfeo; worked for Gonzaga family in Mantua, was later the maestro di cappella at St. Mark's in Venice, wrote motets, a Mass, and several operas
Orfeo
Striggio's libretto set to music by Monteverdi; included recitative, aria, arioso, and toccata
Recitative
type of song in opera where the plot is revealed to audience, irregular rhyme/meters, rapid repeating notes, unrhymed verse
Aria
action halts, characters express their feelings, regular rhythms/meters, virtuosity, rhyming verse
Arioso
somewhere between recitative and aria
Toccata
"to touch," introductory piece for instruments, showcases dexterity
Rise of mathematics in the 17th century
physics, chemistry; developed from infinitesimal calculus
Development of biology and medicine in 17th century
aided by developments in microscope, classification of plants and animals, comparative anatomy
advances in philosophy and social theory in 17th c
history viewed as "progress" from one period or century to another, reason replaces superstition and ignorance
musical developments in the 17th century
composed more rationally (vocal vs. instrumental), idiomatic music for instruments, great instrument makers, sonata & concerto
Stradivari
great instrument-making family in northern Italy
chamber music
music for smaller places, emerged for home or small hall; could be vocal (cantata) or instrumental (sonata)
Barbara Strozzi
wrote chamber cantatas, especially on unrequited love, used recitative, aria, arioso, might use basso ostinato
sonata
instrumental music ("something sounded")
cantata
vocal music ("something to be sung")
chamber cantatas
emphasized solo singing, but had no costumes or scenery
basso ostinato
"stubborn," or repeating bassline used to unify cantata
Arcangelo Corelli
wrote sonatas for two violins and basso continuo
kinds of sonatas
solo: single instrument
ensemble (especially trio): two solo instruments and basso continuo; came to be called "chamber music"
Trio sonata in C Major Op. 4 No. 1
composed by Corelli, uses walking bass; contains four movements: prelude, corrente, adagio, allemanda
sonata da chiesa
church sonata; includes movements named only by their tempo markings (largo, allegro, etc.)
sonata da camera
sonata for a room; includes dance movements
sequence
repetition of same melodic material, usually brief, at different pitch levels, used in both church and room sonatas
Louis XIV
"Sun King," wanted to expand France to natural boundaries, unmatched grandeur/pompous, required every noble to spend some time at the palace at Versailles, elaborate performances and rituals showed king's power and benevolence
Jean-Baptiste Lully
Italian-born, French opera composer who composed almost exclusively for France during Louis XIV's reign
government in England in 17th century
after Tudor dynasty, showed full-scale resistance to absolute monarchy: Charles I executed, protectorate established under Oliver Cromwell, Charles II reinstated in 1660
English revolution results
absolute monarchy was still viable, but also extremely precarious
Teatro San Cassiano
first public opera house, opened in Venice in 1637
subjects of baroque opera
ancient kings, mythic heroes
style of baroque opera
emotional, pompous
French ouverture
AB form, slow, pompous section in duple meter, dotted rhythms
doctrine of affections
baroque idea that music expresses specific emotion; flexible recitative, aria and arioso styles allowed for a full range of emotions to be portrayed
similarities between baroque architecture and music
grandiose, large ensembles of players; more ornate, fussier, exaggerated distorted
Henry Purcell
wrote the opera Dido and Aeneas for a private girls' boarding school
Dido and Aeneas
Dido's recitative more expressive than speech like recitative, but not as expressive as arioso; her aria is built over a basso ostinato (which repeats 11 times)
Armide
the last of Lully's 13 operas, same source as Handel's Rinaldo (Tasso's poem "La Gerusalemme liberata")
structure of French ouverture
A section: slow, duple, pompous dotted rhythms (represent kingship, royalty)
B section: faster, dance-like, often imitative counterpoint
Sometimes A returns (ABA form); performed by orchestra
Regietheater
modern-day directors have freedom in devising how an opera/play is staged
George Frideric Handel
German composer, learned to compose Italian opera; mirrored his characters to the age of absolute monarchy
opera seria
Italian opera in the 18th c.,. "serious opera";
librettos from history/mythology, recitative sounds like speech with narrow range & basso continuo, arias express emotions (as per doctrine of affections);
form: ABA (da capo aria); lead male roles sung by castratos
da capo aria
aria with ABA pattern;
A: expresses one affect;
B: changes mood;
return to A is noticeable, often vocal line is embellished
castrato
male singer anatomically altered to have a high voice, "superstar" singers
concerto
composition using contrasting sounds created by different forces (vocal or instrumental); gradually refers to an instrumental piece for ensemble where one or more soloists complement and compete with an orchestra
concerto
composition using contrasting sounds created by different forces (vocal or instrumental); gradually refers to an instrumental piece for ensemble where one or more soloists complement and compete with an orchestra
solo concerto
solo instrument plays against the orchestra
tutti/ripieno
orchestra against which a soloist plays against in a solo concerto
concerto grosso
small group on instruments plays with and against the orchestra
Jean-Philippe Rameau
wrote "Treatise on Harmony," shows that there is a sense of harmonic principles in the 18th c., revolving around chords
fundamental bass
conceptualized by Rameau, roots of chords (no matter what the inversion)
Antonio Vivaldi
most prolific composer of Baroque concertos, violinist, worked at girl's orphanage and composed 12 concerti grossi, and 12 solo concerti, as well as the Four Seasons
The Four Seasons
most famous concertos composed by Vivaldi, programmatic (directly related to a text), similar to a word painting in this way
Form of concertos
3 movements (fast-slow-fast), uses ritornello form in the first movement
ritornello
"returning," main theme of the piece played by the ripieno/tutti
Johann Sebastian Bach
contemporary of Handel, wrote fugues, "The Well-Tempered Clavier," preferred the organ, composed mainly chorale/cantata
mobility of printed music (18th c.)
allowed for traveling musicians with music, Bach learned by copying and transcribing this printed music
Ancient Regime
(old regime), in France, all men subjects of king by birth, divine right to rule, establish privileges for classes, little social mobility
Holy Roman Empire
jigsaw puzzle of small states run by kings, princes, etc.; Peace of Augsburg decided that religion would be determined by head of state
Enlightenment thought
Locke, Rousseau, improvement and use of reason; Frederick the Great: religious tolerance; Voltaire: subjection of nature to reason, Mattheson "Der volkommere Capellmeister"
Fugue
composed by Bach, theme is repeated several times, sometimes over one another
Loyseau's "Treatise on Orders"
defense of monarchy in the 18th c., three orders of Estates General: clergy, nobility, 3rd estate; superficially visible who belonged to what order
Brandenburg concertos
include 4 concerti grossi;
Concerto No. 5 written in 1721
Vivaldian Revolution
Structure theory followed by Bach, three movements: fast-slow-fast, use of ritornello form
Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major
concertino = violin, flute, harpsichord;
first movement alternates between tutti and concertino, uses cadenza at end; sequencing of short melodic fragments
sequencing
moving a short melodic pattern up or down the scale, used to extend the movement
French rationalist movement
ultiamtely favored an anti-monarchical stance, called for heavier reliance on man's own reasoning, than acceptance of divine right
natural law
late Baroque idea of human rights, rather than acceptance of divine right
Puritans in England
Christian group that were both religious and committed to the notion of human rights, justified through the Bible
Lutheran mass
lasted 4 to 7 hours, used cantatas
movements in Bach's cantatas
settings of biblical texts, chorales for choir, recitatives, arias
chorale
German Lutheran sacred melody (like Catholic hymns)
Bach's composition of cantatas
sacred and secular, five cycles of cantatas (one per week)
Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme
Bach's cantata from 1731, composed for St. Thomas church for the beginning of Advent, uses chorus, orchestra, basso continuo, and soloists, from the virgins story
First, fourth, and seventh movements from Wachet Auf
First: ritornello, and chorale sung by sopranos, uses dotted notes
Fourth: flowing melody in strings above walking bass,
Seventh: homophonic presentation of "Awake" chorale tune
Handel
moved a lot, got break in London, composed Rinaldo (first), began English popular opera & oratorios
oratorio
musical dramatizations of the Bible, arose in Italy, like opera but no costumes or stage
orchestral dance suite
written by Handel for George I, used binary (AB) form that was sometimes repeated
"Water Music"
Minuet and Trio by Handel, dance suite, uses horns and winds, and finally full orchestra in minuet, strings in trio
Parts of oratorios
overture, aria, arioso, recitative;
Handel's replaced arias with choruses, often uses word painting
Handel's Messiah
oratorio, 3 parts: prophecies, suffering and death of Christ, resurrection;
pastoral aria "He shall feed his flock;"
"Hallelujah" chorus