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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the first song that sold over 1 million copies of sheet music.
"After the Ball" - 1882
How can you become a better songwriter?
read philosophy, co-write with someone better, network, and practice
How do songwriters make money?
royalty stream and ownership of copyright
How do music publishers make money?
royalty stream and ownership of copyright
List the types of music publishers and their differences.
Major (100% owned by Mega)
Specialty (appeals to niche)
Where and what was tin pan alley?
New York
Book publisher turned into music publishing company.
Define the following:
Mechanical License
Performance "blanket" License
Sync License
Transcription License
Foreign License
Mech. Lic.
For reproduction and distribution

Perf. Lic.
For public performances or broadcast

Sync Lic.
For film, TV, video

Transcription Lic.
COmbination of mech/blanket licenses. Used for Muzak.

Foreign Lic.
For use overseas
Who is the NMPA?
National Music Publishing Association
Who are ASCAP, BMI, and SESAC?
Performing rights organizations
Who does the Harry Fox Agency represent?
Music publishers
When can you recapture a copyright?
35-40 years
Name three types of businesses.
Sole Proprietership
What do you need to start a music publishing company?
Register with a P.R.O.
Obtain a federal tax number
What is the most important thing you will need to become successful as a music publishing company?
good songs
Explain how a multiple is used to determine the value os a publishing company.
A multiple is negotiated by the catalog's worth to determine the value of the publishing company.
List the 5 types of songwriting publishing deals.
Work for Hire
Who is the SGA?
The Songwriter's Guild of America
How are mechanical license royalties determined in foreign countries?
Foreign P.R.O.'s
How do ASCAP, BMI, and SESAC collect money/pay their writers and publishers?
They use charts, BDS, and analyze radio airplay to determine their fees.

Money is paid directly to songwriters/publishers.
In the US, what business is exempt from being issued public performance licenses?
small restaurants, businesses, and hotels
How are public performances monitored?
The BDS System
Is sampling a copyright infringement?
Yes, if royalties are not paid to the original songwriter.
Which performing rights organization is a for-profit?
What license does a live performance of a non-dramatic song require?
Performance "blanket" license
Describe the procedure for paying songwriters and publishers mechanical royalties.
Label pays Harry Fox Agency
HF Agency pays the Publisher
The publisher pays songwriter
Describe the procedure for paying soungwriters and publishers performance royalties.
Venue pays the PRO
The PRO pays the songwriter and publisher directly.
Performance royalties are collected from?
Radio, businesses, venues, and digital transmission
Sync royalties are collected from?
Film, plays, TV networks
Mechanical royalties are collected from?
Music Labels
How does the Fairness in Music Act affect songwriters/publishers?
They do not earn royalties if their songs are played in small businesses.
Foreign royalties are often paid at what percentage of American rates?
The rate varies
How many PRO's can you belong to at once?
What is the advantage of owning your own publishing company?
You can negotiate Co-Publishing and Sub-Publishing deals.
Explain the effects of the controlled composition clause's use to the label and major artists.
If the artist is a writer or co-writer of a song, the Label only pays 75% of the statutory rate.
What does Soundcan do?
It analyzes CD sales.
What is the BDS system?
a computer that scans radio for song plays
List the 5 mega entertainment corporations and their host countries.
Bertelsmann - Germany
Sony - Japan
EMI - England
Time Warner - USA
Universal - French
What is the Mega Entertainment Corporations' organizational structure of divisions?
Entertainment Production
What gives the mega's their power for economic success?
Worldwide distribution, promotion, and publicity
What is the biggest threat to the structure of the music industry and their parent corporations?
The internet and downloads
How are the megas responding tio the threat of internet downloads?
They are beginning to use the internet as a tool to distribute, promote, and publicize their products.
List the 2 companies that could become the 6th and 7th mega corporations.
Dreamworks, Disney
Who invented the first recording devices, film cameras?
Thomas Edison
Explain the company structure of a typical record label.
List the five things labels must do to be successful.
1.Find and sign talent
List the 5 types of labels.
VR Internet
Cell Phones
What are the three areas of Development?
List 5 types of recording deals.
What is the Controlled Composition Clause rate?
75% of the statutory rate
0.06825 cents
What is the Formula Amount?
It refers to increased advances with each option.
What are the "All In's"?
Expenses that are 100% recoupable from the artist's account
What are free goods?
CDs that are given away to stimulate retail sales.

Up to 25% of CD pressed can be given away as free goods.
Name and explain the three stages of the recording session.
Basic tracks
Name 5 types of recording sessions.
Limited Pressing (LP)
Low Budget
"Right to Work"
Explain cross-collateralization.
The profits from the current recording pay for the debt of a previous recording
What is promotion?
Promotion is giving free samples of a product, such as radio airplay.
What is Publicity?
Publicity is telling people about your product and why they should buy it. It is usually based on image, such as magazine articles.
Name the 7 types of distribution to retail.
One Stop
Cell phones
Record Clubs
Mass Merchandisers
Explain the 40/20/40 of the SRLP in the price structure of labels and products.
40% to Labels
20% to Distributor
40% to retail outlet
How much should you budget in your recording contract for promotion?
100-200% of the recording budget
How much should you budget in your recording contract for publicity?
50-100% of the recording budget
List and explain the 4 P's pf marketing as related to the music business.
What are the legal requirements for artist management?
there are none
What percent of the artist's gross income do managers usually make?
Explain the power of attorney agreement.
The artist's manager can sign legal documents in place of the artist.
Who hires the manager?
the artist
How do concert promoters make money?
They make money from ticket sales.
What agency licenses talent agents of actors, radio personalities, and talk show hosts?
American Federation of Musicians (AFofM)
What percent of the concert hall needs to be sold for a promoter to "break even"?
What is a rider?
instructions given to a venue detailing the artist's needs for the concert
What is public relations?
PR is used to clean up a negative image (bad publicity)
What will managers not do as part of their job description?
find employment for an artist
When an artist and manager split before the end of the contract, how is the manager paid for the remainder of the original agreement?
declining commissions on artist royalties
Why do record labels support concert tours?
Tours help to build the artist's image and stimulate retail sales.
Who is Clear Channel?
An entertainment corporation that owns about 10% of radio and TV stations.
Explain the business model of radio stations.
Radio stations sell airtime to advertisers and has no apparent cost to the consumer.
How much money is in merchandising?
about 15-35% of gross income
Who is IATSE?
a union for "techies" and road crew
What is the key supportive "property value item" that allows the business and creative systems in the entertainment industry to exist?