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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Relative highness or lowness of a sound
Degrees of loudness or softness in music
Gradually louder/ gradually softer
Ordered flow of music through time; the pattern of durations of notes and silences in music
Regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time
Organization of beats into regular groups
Accenting of a note at an unexpected time, as between two beats or on a weak beat. A major characteristic of jazz.
Basic pace of the music
Series of single notes that add up to a recognizable whole
Central note, scale and chord within a piece; in relationship to which all other tones in the composition are heard
Fragment of a theme, or a short musical idea that is developed within a composition
Melody that serves as the starting point for an extended piece of music
How chords are constructed and how they follow each other
Dissonance/ consonance
Tone combination that is unstable and tense/ stable and restful
Combination of three or more tones sounded at once
Number of layers of sound that are heard at once, what kinds of layers they are, and how they are related to each other
Single melodic line without accompaniment/
One main melody is accompanied by chords/
Two or more melodic lines of relatively equal interest at the same time
Technique of combining two or more melodic lines into a meaningful whole
Quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another
An instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string, brass, woodwind and percussion sections
Instrument whose sound is produced by the vibration of strings
Instrument, made of brass or silver, whose sound is produced by the vibrations of the player's lips as he or she blows into a cup- or funnel- shaped mouthpiece. The vibrations are amplified and colored in a tube that is flared at the end
Instrument whose sound is produced by vibrations of air in a tube; holes along the length of tube are opened and closed by the fingers, or by pads, to control the pitch.
Instrument of definite or indefinite pitch whose sound is produced by striking by hand, or with a stick or hammer, or by shaking or rubbing.
Creation of music at the same time as it is performed
Medieval period
Period from 450-1450 AD
Performance of a single melodic line by more than one instrument or voice at the same pitch or in different octaves
Scales containing seven tones with an eight tone duplicating the first an octave higher, but with patterns of whole and half steps different from major and minor scales; used in medieval, Renaissance, and twentieth-century music and in folk music
Plainsong, plainchant, Gregorian Chant
melodies set to sacred Latin texts, sung without accompaniment; the official music of the Roman Catholic church
Sacred choral composition made up of five sections: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei
Mass for the dead
Troubadours, trouveres, Meistersingers, Goliards, jongleurs
Various groups of traveling musicians during the Middle Ages
Medieval polyphony that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines
A cappella
Choral music without instrumental accompaniment
Polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than that of the mass; one of the two main form of sacred Renaissance music
Cantus firmus
A pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition, often set apart by being played in long notes.
Family of woodwind instruments whose sounds is produced by blowing into a "whistle" mouthpiece, usually made of wood or plastic
Hymn tune sung to a German religious text
Composition for several voices set to a short secular poem, usually about love, combining homophonic and polyphonic textures and often using word painting, common in renaissance music
Word painting
Musical representation of specific poetic images-- for example, a falling melodic line to accompany the word descending-- often found in Renaissance and Baroque music
A group of instruments, smaller than an orchestra, popular during the Renaissance
Time period from 1600-1750
Drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment, usually a large-scale composition involving vocal soloists, chorus, orchestra, costumes, and scenery
Text of an opera
Vocal line in an opera, oratorio, or cantata that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech, often serving to lead into an aria.
Song for a solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, usually expressing an emotional state through its outpouring of melody; found in operas, oratorios, and cantatas
In Italian, fellowship of society, a group of nobles, poets, and composers who began to meet regularly in Florence around 1575 and whose musical discussions prepared the way for the beginning of opera
Large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually set to a narrative text, but without acting, scenery, or costumes; often based on biblical stories.
Composition in several movements, usually written for chorus, one or more vocal soloists, and instrumental ensemble.
Terraced dynamics
Abrupt alternation between loud and soft dynamic levels; characteristic of baroque music
Keyboard instrument, widely used from about 1500 to 1775, whose sound is produced by plectra which pluck its wire strings. The instrument was revived during the twentieth century.
Polyphonic composition based on one main theme, or subject
Chorale prelude
Short composition for organ, based on a hymn tune and often used to remind the congregation of the melody before the hymn is sung.
Basso continuo
Baroque accompaniment made up of a base part usually played by two instruments: a keyboard plus a low melodic instrument
In baroque music, a set of dance-inspired movements all written in the same key but differing in tempo, meter, and character
Concerto grosso
Composition for several instrumental soloists and small orchestra; common in late baroque music
Extended composition for instrumental soloist and orchestra, usually in three movements: (1) fast, (2) slow, (3) fast