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155 Cards in this Set

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Pitch A tends to be a __________ beat in all orchesta
beat
higher pitches create _________________.
faster vibrations
what is pitch?
the quality of highness or lowness of sound
Music is based on _______ pitch and _______ pitch
definent

indefinent
tonality focuses on one ________, as long as the music gravitates toward the central pitch
pitch
what is a melody?
the most important or prominent part of the music
Progressing melodically by intervals of a second.
what is conjunct music?
Progressing melodically by intervals larger than a major second.
what is disjunct?
what is an interval?
In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. Although frequently used in connection with intervals, the term "distance" does not adequately describe the physics and subjective effects of two interacting frequencies.
what is form?
shape of piece of music. form is organization of large sections of musical piece
what are some type of form?
Orando
ABA
tornedo
Historians studied music composoers wrote to see different forms. they discovered that some pieces were ___________.
similar
Most operas are:

a. really long
b. grouped into individual acts
c. performed in english
d. full of dancing
b. grouped into individual acts
The most popular form of secular music during the middle ages was perfomred by a poet/muscians called:

(a) troubadours
b. trouveres
c. minnesingers
d. janglars
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
what is a musical phrase?
In music a phrase (Greek φράση, sentence, expression, see also strophe) is a section of music that is relatively self contained and coherent over a medium time scale.
What are dynamics?
musical markings that indicate how loud or soft a pitch should be performed
what is a tempo?
a fast and slow beat, can be fast, medium or slow
what kind of tempo is this:

vivace?
fast
what kind of tempo is this:

presto
2nd fastest
what kind of tempo is this:

allegro
3rd fastest
what kind of tempo is this:

moderato
4th fastest
what kind of tempo is this:

andante
5th fastest
what kind of tempo is this:

adagio
slowest
the __________ varies depending on tempo
quarter note
The tempo marking _________ indicates moderately fast.
moderato
____________ includes the basic beat and everything the musicians play in a given tempo.
rhythm
list three different tempo markings and what those terms indicate.
grave-very slow
allegro-fast
presto-very very fast
what is meter?
recurring groupings of strong and weak beats
what are duple meters?
2 or 4 count
what is a compound meter?
a mixture of a dupule and a truple
what is tone color?
the soundorous quailtiy of a particular voice or instrument, the character of a sound, the quality of a sound
Tone color determined on the ______ and _______ of the sound.
attack and decay
what is rhythm?
is the duration of sound in music

it usually lies in the steady beat of music

takes place inside beat

not as consistent as the steady beat
what is a beat?
A beat is a pulse on the beat level, the metric level at which pulses are heard as the basic unit.
what is harmony?
the vertical aspect of the music, happens when two or more sounds happen at the same time
what is tonality?
Tonality is a system of music in which certain hierarchical pitch relationships are based on a key "center" or tonic.
How is a major modality arranged?
WS/WS/HS/WS/WS/WS/HS
How is a minor modality arranged?
WS/HS/WS/WS/HS/WS/WS
What is a modality?
an arrangement of whole steps and half steps
Piano belongs to the _____________ family.
precussion
What belongs to the precussion family?
anything that has to be struck or hit
Before piano there was the __________.
harpsicorf
What do strings do?
vibrates to make noise
what do woodwinds do?
instruments that use air vibration:

clarinet
oboe
saxaphone
a piece of wood on mouthpice
what do brass do
vibrtation that comes from the lips

trumpet
brass sits behind ___________
woodwinds
violins are always off to conductor's _________.
left
Full Orchesta didn't come into being until the _____________.
romantic period
Baroque orchestra has mainly _________________.
strings & keyboard
Festive Baroque Orchestra has....
woodwinds
strings
brass
What is in the typical Romantic Orchesta?
violins
woodwinds
brass
percussion
What types of woodwinds are in the Typical Romantic Orchestra?
oboe
picolo
clarinet
bass clarinet
bassoon
What type of brass is in the Typical Romantic Orchestra?
four french horns
2 trumpets
2 ttrombones
What types of precussion is in the Typical Romantic Orchesta?
3 tipani
snare rum
bass drum
What is the physical differentce between a viola and violin?
viola is a little bigger therefore makes lower sounds, whereas violin is smalleer than a viola so not as low of notes
what is a tipany?
kettle drum with huge kettle underneat
what does monophonic mean?
the tone color of a group of voices singing same pitch at same time can be considered monophonic

refers to texture in music
what is monophonic?
only has one pitch sounding at one time
what are church modes?
In the world of classical music, prior to 1600 there was seven different patterns of half-steps and whole-steps, each consisting of an eight note pattern within a given octave, called the church modes.
what is consonance?
tones at rest
what is dissonance?
tones that need to be resolved
what is homophonic?
playing groups of different notes with the same rhythms
what is polyphonic?
applies when two or more simultaneous melodies weave together with different rhytms and notes
what is texture?
a blend of various sounds
what is an interval?
pitches of different frequencies
what is an emsemble
A musical ensemble is a group of two or more musicians who perform instrumental or vocal music. In each musical style or genre, different norms have developed for the sizes and composition of different ensembles, and for the repertoire of songs or musical works that these ensembles perform.
what is symphony orchesta?
An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string, brass, woodwind sections, and possibly a percussion section as well.

A full size orchestra (about 100 players) may sometimes be called a "symphony orchestra"
what is concert band?
A concert band, also called wind band, symphonic band, symphonic winds, wind orchestra, wind symphony, or wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of several members of the woodwind instrument family, brass instrument family and percussion instrument family.
what is a chamber ensemble?
been popular since late ren.

continues to be popular form of music today

most common form is made up f two violins, one viola, and one cello
what is a choir?
A body of singers who perform together is called a choir or chorus.
when is it proper to applaud at a concert attendance?
applaud when the the concertmaster (first violinist) enters the stage
is it proper to applaud after two movements of a five movement song?
no, it is customary to applaud after all the movements have been completed
At an opera, it is bad to applaud during the concert.

f or t
it is perfectly acceptable at an opera

false
what were the middle ages like?
everything was pretty barbaric in Europe

fuedal system
plauge
education and arts were in decline
what is cantus firmus?
a fixed song, became a regular feature in most sacred compositions for the next several hundred years
what is polyphonic
music with more than one melodic line
what is an organum?
two voiced compositons
what is a motet?
a three or four voiced composition
what is sacred music?
music performed inside the church
what is secular music?
music that is performed outside the church during the middle ages
what is a chant?
Chant (from Old French chanter[1]) is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two pitches called reciting tones.
Who is Pope Gregory?
He was the pope during the time that deemed the name of "Gregorian Chants"
what is plain chant?
has more of a melody than gregorian chant
what is the gregorian chant?
Pope Gregory (540-604) set down an edict saying that monasteries should preserve melodies used in church by writing them all down using a system of musical notation.

For that reason, the early monophonic music of the church is most frequently referred to as Gregorian chant, though you may also see the term plainchant or plainsong used in reference to the same music.
What are the three categories that Gregorian chants fall into?
syllabic
neumatic
melismatic
Who is one of the first composers known to us by name?
Hildegard von Bingen
Who was the tenth child of a noble vamily and promised to the church from childhood?
Hildegard von Bingen
Who eventually founded a convent in Germany where she was an active writer, visonary, and composer?
Hildegard von Bingen
What volume is Bingen's music collected into?
Symphonica Armoniae celestium
Did Hildegard use musical accompyment with her music?
It is often argued
what is musical notation?
Music notation or musical notation is any system which represents aurally perceived music through the use of written symbols.
what is syllabic?
means one note per syllable of test and is generally simplest form of chant
what is neumatic?
refers to the term "neumes" (which was the notabtion system o the time) and usually indicates two or three notes per syllable
what is mellismatic?
chants tend to have the most expansive range of all the chants, and they frequently make use of many notes per syllable of text
what is the proper and the ordinary??
masses that are organized into two different sections
what is the proper?
the part of the chants that would change every week, according to the liturgical calendar
what is the ordinary?
the five sections of the mass that remain the same every week
What is the Notre Dame School?
We begin to see the first written examples of polyphonic music


manuscripts orginating from the Norte Dame Cathedal in Paris began to display two independent line sof music, a styled called organnum.
what did they first see at the Norte Dame school?
motets
polyphonic music
organum
Who was Leonin?
a composer with the Nortre Dame school who wrtoe good organumn music
Who was Perotin?
came after Leonius, and adjusted the compositons that the first guy had made.

He wrote amazing four voice compositons
what is isorhythm?
taking rhythm repeating over and over and making them more complicated
Who was Phillipe De Vitry?
a guy who helped create the term for the new art of the Middle ages, someimes referred to as ars nova
what does music from the middle ages that comes from an earlier part called?
ars antiqua
The actual term __________ is a twentieth century creation, but it is a simple way of describing de Vitry's writing out the cantus firmus of a given motet, in strict, repeated, long-duration notes
isorhythm
How much of De Vitry's music still remains?
12 motets, one of which carries a French text, with the rest being in Latin
who is credited with the isorhytmic motet?
Phillippe de Vitry
What is an isorhythmic motest
Vitry's technique of writing the cantus firmus in a strict, repeated, long duration notes while the upper voices follow along at what seems like twice the tempo
Guillaume de Machaut is considered a minor composer from the 14th century.

true or false?
false
Machaut's Messe de Norte Fame is said to be the oldest polyphonic mass.

true or false?
true
Who was a middle age artist that bridged to the renassiance?
Machaut
What was one of Machuat's firsts?
writing out a five movement piece
Did Mauchaut write secular or sacred music?
both
What are considered some of Mauchaut's best work?
his sacred and secular motests
What did some of Machuat's pieces embrace?
Divitry'ss concept of isorhythm
what are Troubadours, trouveres, minnesingers?
generally members of the nobility or were in some way attached to a particular court
what are jonglars?
lower class wandering minstrels who functioned as CNN in the middle ages telling the latest heroic tales passing from court to court
what was source of inspiration for the renassiance?
humanism
polyphony
church music still dominant
1501 printed music
Who is the master above all others during the renassiance?
Josquin
What did Josquin started as?
a singer in a choir
Who do historians think Josquin studied with?
Ockeghem
What is Josquin's vast compostional output?
18 masses
100 scared motets
70 secular works
what do Josquin's music usually refer to?
the virgin mary
who is martin luther?
excommunitcated from the catholic church, thought music was a gidt from god, should play an integral role of people's religious lives.
what did luther compose?
simple hymns that were to be sang by a congressation in the local language rather than lation, which was the offical language .
what language did martin luther use in his songs?
german
what is reformation?
The Protestant Reformation was a movement in Europe that began with Martin Luther's activities in 1517 and ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.[1]
what is counter reformation?
The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation[1][2] or Catholic Revival[2]) denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648.
what is the council of trent?
The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church. It was convened three times between December 13, 1545 and December 4, 1563 in the city of Trent (modern Trento, Alto Adige) as a response to the theological and ecclesiological challenges of the Protestant Reformation.
who is palestrina?
worked the bulk of his life for the catholic church

most of his music is sacred
what is palestrina credited for with saving?
polyphonic music for the church and influcing the council of tent in keeping polyphonic music
Who is Garielli?
Followed in the footsteps of his uncle, Andrea Gabrieli, as music master at St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice
How was St. Mark's Cathedral seen at the time in 1555?
one of the greatest places to sing polyphinic c compositions, has a natural time delay of four seconds
Gibrieli had what type of music during his performacnce
call and responses
What kind of experience was it to listen in ST. Mark's Cathedral?
somewhat of a surround sound
what kind of music did Garbeieli compose?
multiple choir polyphonic compositons for voices only, instruments only, and mixutres of the two.
Gabrielli's music is a favorite of...?
bass players
mixed choirs of________ play gabrielli music
modern brass isntruments
what is polychoral?
When two or more groups of singers sing in alternation the style of music can also be called polychoral
what is printed music?
In 1501 it was invented, made printed music highly available to anyone
who invented printed music?
ottaviano petrucci
who was a secular music renaissance arist?
heinrich ISssace
what type of music steadily grew during the renassiance period?
secular music?
what is a marginal?
polyphinc secular vocal format popular during the late Renassiance and early Baroque period. The style is marked by richly polyphonic music, set with poetry that speaks of love and other popular courtly topics.
what is a chanson?
a popular French vocal style of secular music during the renaissance
who is Tomkins?
one of the three toms that conributed greatly to a body of lighter english marginals that grew popular during the last two decades of the renassiance and the first few years of the baroque era.
In general ______ madringal tended to be lighter in poetic and musical substace
english
Did Tomkins use dissonace a lot?
no
what did Tomkins use that was new?
nonsense syllable such as fa la la
what is a declamation?
words set to music according to the natural rhythm and accent of words
what is word painting?
musical illustration of the meaning of a word or short verbal phrase
what is a capella?
voice alone, became ideal as ren. progressed
what is strophic?
meaning that the same melody keeps repeating over and over again
when were the middle ages?
500-1450
when was the renaissance?
1450-1600