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173 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is music?
music is organized sound
music is also organized silence
why do we have music?
entertainment purpose
express ourselves
what does sound move in?
waves
No electricity for centuries didn't allow people to have low frequency _________
sound
The longer string, the more _______ is going to be and the lower the ______________ is going to be.
air

frequency
what is a double bass?
it looks like a cello
what is an upright double bass?
solved low frequency problem for composers who wanted bass
how did people make strings in the past?
out of dried guts
_______ didn't respons well as a rubber and and doesn't make a usable sound
gut
Until introduction of ________ strings bass was hard
metal
in the 17th century what was introduced?
metal stringed insturments
to play a double bass is extremely _________
difficult
why is it called a double bass?
doubled cello part of it
simply used for whole big nots
In time of Betoweven what was used?
first double bass virtuoso
Realizing that double bass was worth something happened after the introduction of the _____________.
bass virtuoso
At the end of the civil war, suddenly the blues and jazz comes to the Mississippi.

Why?
Old European instruments were being sold by the rich after the war, so frequently people found old bass and trumpets that they just used to jam
When did Big Band become populat?
the 1900s, it was an extension of jazz
Who invented the bass guitar
Leo Vender
How was the bass guitar invented?
bass on a guitar body and put magnet up to it to amplify the sound
What happened five seconds in the 1950s after the invention of the electric bass?
rock n roll
What are means?
the ways music is organized, way musical elements are used
what is music?
an organization of sounds
What are some elements of music?
rhythm
tone
modality
tone color
dynamics
What is an effect?
the mood the music gives you
Most people are _____________ of music/
passive listeners
How do we hear?
the A piano string vibrates back and forth 440 times a second

a string moves air molecules

jostele each other at same freqyency to create air waves

ear intercepts the air moleculew, which sets ear drum in motion, and vibrates at the same amount of time at 440

send to choclea which sends information to the brain
What is the sound processing of the human ear?
composite shapes are translated into our brain, it is decoded in a way
Pitch A tends to be a __________ beat in all orchesta
beat
what is intination?
being right on the pitch
higher pitches create _________________.
faster vibrations
what is tone color?
the soundorous quailtiy of a particular voice or instrument, the character of a sound, the quality of a sound
Piano belongs to the _____________ family.
precussion
What belongs to the precussion family?
anything that has to be struck or hit
Before piano there was the __________.
harpsicorf
What do strings do?
vibrates to make noise
what do woodwinds do?
instruments that use air vibration:

clarinet
oboe
saxaphone
a piece of wood on mouthpice
what do brass do
vibrtation that comes from the lips

trumpet
Tone color determined on the ______ and _______ of the sound.
attack

decay
what is pitch?
the quality of highness or lowness of sound
A440 is a _________
pitch
Musical Alphabet goes _______ and keeps repeating itself
A to G
Music is based on _______ pitch and _______ pitch
definent

indefinent
What are dynamics?
musical markings that indicate how loud or soft a pitch should be performed?
what does this dynamic mark indicate:

f
forte=loud
what does this dynamic mark indicate:

ppp
pianississimo

very very soft
what does this dynamic mark indicate:

pp
pianissimo

very soft
what does this dynamic mark indicate:


p
piano

soft
what does this dynamic mark indicate:

mp
mezzo piano

moderately soft
what does this dynamic mark indicate:

mf
mezzo forte

moderately loud
what does this dynamic mark indicate:

ff
fortissimo

very loud
what does this dynamic mark indicate:

fff
fortississimo

very very loud
what does this dynamic mark indicate:

cresendo
gradually gets louder
what does this dynamic mark indicate:

decresendo
gradually gets softer
Stravinky's piece "Right of Spring" was in the movie...
Fantasia
brass sits behind ___________
woodwinds
violins are always off to conductor's _________.
left
Full Orchesta didn't come into being until the _____________.
romantic period
Baroque orchestra has mainly _________________.
strings & keyboard
Festive Baroque Orchestra has....
woodwinds
strings
brass
What is in the typical Romantic Orchesta?
violins
woodwinds
brass
percussion
What types of woodwinds are in the Typical Romantic Orchestra?
oboe
picolo
clarinet
bass clarinet
bassoon
What type of brass is in the Typical Romantic Orchestra?
four french horns
2 trumpets
2 ttrombones
What types of precussion is in the Typical Romantic Orchesta?
3 tipani
snare rum
bass drum
What is the physical differentce between a viola and violin?
viola is a little bigger therefore makes lower sounds, whereas violin is smalleer than a viola so not as low of notes
what is a tipany?
kettle drum with huge kettle underneat
what is a steady beat?
recurring pulse in music
what is rhythm?
is the duration of sound in music

it usually lies in the steady beat of music

takes place inside beat

not as consistent as the steady beat
what is meter?
recurring groupings of strong and weak beats
what is a strong beat?
has moves emphaiss or weight

meters can change through the course of a song
what are duple meters?
2 or 4 count
what is a duple?
meters or groupings of songs in groups of 2 or 4
what is a truple?
meters in groupings of three, part of two main types of meters
what is a compound meter?
a mixture of a dupule and a truple
what is a tempo?
a fast and slow beat, can be fast, medium or slow
what kind of tempo is this:

vivace?
fast
what kind of tempo is this:

presto
2nd fastest
what kind of tempo is this:

allegro
3rd fastest
what kind of tempo is this:

moderato
4th fastest
what kind of tempo is this:

andante
5th fastest
what kind of tempo is this:

adagio
slow
what is a half step?
an awkward sounding type of note that goes from a white to a black key
How is a major modality arranged?
WS/WS/HS/WS/WS/WS/HS
How is a minor modality arranged?
WS/HS/WS/WS/HS/WS/WS
What is a modality?
an arrangement of whole steps and half steps
what is a melody?
the most important or prominent part of the music
what is harmony?
the vertical aspect of the music, happens when two or more sounds happen at the same time
what is dissonance?
used as an energy for composers, it adds tension to music
Not going back to C from C makes people feel _____
up in the air
tonality focuses on one ________, as long as the music gravitates toward the central pitch
pitch
___________ & _____________ tend to be used a lot in music in order to move forward
consonance and dissonance
what is texture?
a blend of various sounds
what is form?
shape of piece of music. form is organization of large sections of musical piece
the __________ varies depending on tempo
quarter note
what are some type of form?
Orando
ABA
tornedo
Historians studied music composoers wrote to see different forms. they discovered that some pieces were ___________.
similar
when were the middle ages?
476-1400
when was the fall of the roman empire?
476
everything was pretty barbaric in Europe in the middle ages. How?
fedual system
plague
education and arts were in decline
sometimes the middle ages are referred to as ....
the middle ages
Europeans were constantly....
invaded
there was a _______________ away from the absolute authority of the church
slow movemnet
the evolutionf _________ and music notation represent a huge leap forward in the making of music
plipahny
until music was reproduced, we couldn't produce any.......
other music
what is the "plain chant" also known as?
gregorian chant
The _________ was the primary patron of art and education and singles greatest preserver of western civ.
catholic church
by ______ the church had tac kled how to notate _______
1000
pitches
church looked on only stronghold against....
barbarianism, irgnorance, and sin
what does monophonic mean?
the tone color of a group of voices singing same pitch at same time can be considered monophonic

refers to texture in music
what is monophonic?
only has one pitch sounding at one time
Gregorian chants tend to have no....
steady beat
The term polyphonic implies a single line of music.

T or F?
false
Chords are groups of notes that sound consonant or dissonant when played together.

T or F?
true
Vibrato can give string instruments more of a "singing" quality to their tone.

T or F?
true
Today the most common ensemble used in classical music is the symphony orchestra.

T or F?
true
The term opus means work.

T or F?
true
at most classical concerts it is considered acceptable to applaud whenever you feel like it.

T or F?
false
Consonance is best defined as:

a. tones at rest
b. tones that need to be resolved
c. tones that sound good together
d. tones that sound bad together
e. none of the above.
a. tones at rest
Dissonance is best defined as:

a. tones at rest
b. tones that need to be resolved
c. tones that sound good together
d. tones that sound bad together
e. none of the above.
b. tones that need to be resolved
Most operas are:

a. really long
b. grouped into individual acts
c. performed in english
d. full of dancing
b. grouped into individual acts
Most symphony orchestras are made up of:

a. a large string section
b. woodwinds
c. brass
d. percussion
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
Some of the most common keyboard instruments used in classical music include

a. pipe organ
b. harpsichord
c. piano.
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
d. all of the above
To produce a tone to any _________ instrument the player places both lips into the mouthpiece and produces a buzzing vibration.
woodwinds
The tempo marking _________ indicates moderately fast.
moderato
____________ includes the basic beat and everything the musicians play in a given tempo.
rhythm
Any sound that has an identifiable __________, or simultaneous melodies weave together with different notes and rhythms
pitch
In music, we group sets of the basic beat together in something called a __________ or a _______.
measure

bar
The most common instruments in the ______________ family of intrustmens incluide the flute, clarinet, oboe, and basson.
woodwind
List the names of four differnt instruments found in string section.
violins
harps
violas
pianos
List the three building blocks of chords.
the tonic/dominant axis harmony:

(1) tonic
(2) dominant
(3) sub dominant
list three different tempo markings and what those terms indicate.
grave-very slow
allegro-fast
presto-very very fast
List three different dynamic marking and what those terms indicate.
mezzo paino (mf) moderately soft

piano (p) soft

cresendo - gradually louder
When was the middle ages?
500-1450
when was the ranaissance
1450-1600
The mass text is divied into two sections called the proper and the ordinary.

true or false?
true
Most scholars agree that the earliest church music was monophonic.


true or false?
true
most scholars agree that the earliest church music was polyphonic.

true or false?
false
Guillaume de Machaut is considered a minor composer from the 14th century.

true or false?
false
Hildergard von Bingen founded a convent in Rupertsberg, Germany.

true or false?
true
early music from the middle ages is sometimes referred to as the ars nova.

true or false?
true
early music from the middle ages is sometime referred to as the ars antiqua.

true or false?
FALSE
Machaut's Messe de Norte Fame is said to be the oldest polyphonic mass.

true or false?
true
Compared to sacred music during the middle ages, a great deal is known about the creation of secular music during the same timeframe.

true or false?
false
Jonglars were lower class wandering minstrels.

true or false?
true
The most popular form of secular music during the middle ages was perfomred by a poet/muscians called:

(a) troubadours
b. trouveres
c. minnesingers
d. janglars
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
This composer was the tenth child of a noble family and as such was promised church from childhood.

a. Hildgergard Von Bingen
b. Leonin
c. Machuat
d. Moinot D'arras
a. von Bingen
Leonin and Perotin were early composers of polyphonic music at the

a. Cathedreal of St. Mark
b. Cathedral of St. Peter
c. Notre Dame Cathedral
d. Bob's Church of Middle Ages
c. Notre Dame Cathedral
The term __________ was taken from a theoretical treatise by Phillippe dE vITRY.
ars nova
20th century composoer ___________ icluded the melody Ce Fu en mai in his composition "Nobilissma Visone"
Moinot D'arras
Phillipe de Vitre is credited with the creation of the ______________ motet.
isorhythmic
The concept of the _____________ or fixed song, became a regular feature in most polyphonic sacred compositns during the middle ages.
cantus firmus
Around 1272, an early historian known as _________ wrote the first important recorded history of Leonin and Perotin.
Anonymous IV
List the five sections of the mass ordinary
kyrie
gloria
credo
sanetus
agnus dei
list the three basic catergories of gregorian chant music
syllabic
neumantic
melismatic
On your listening CDS, how many verses does the sne ce fu en mei contain?
five
William Byrd composed a seres of over 100 sacred motets.

true or false?
true
Josquin Des Prez composed the secular song Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen.

true or false?
false
In 1501, a man named Ottaviano Petrucci began music printing.

true or false?
true
Martin Luther led a religious movement during the renaissance that came to be called the protestant reormation.

true or false?
true
Johannas Ockeghem was a student of JS Bach.

true or false?
false
Many of Palestrina's masses are said to be parody masses.

true or false?
true
Palestrina frequently made use of secular material in his sacred compositions.

true or false?
false
most of dufay's secular works were for three independent oices sinigng poetry written in french.

true or false?
false
Willian Byrd composed smaller intimate vocal works for use in private Catholic services in England.


true or false?
true
What was the church governing council that considered banning music from mass?
the council of trent
WHat is composed of 104 masses, 375 motets, large cycles of hymns and offerotires, 35 magnificats, and more than 140 mDRINGALs?
giocanni palestrina
who was a catholic composer who wrote music for the angilican church?
william byrd
over the years, gabrielle's music has become
brass players
In the madrignal, compositional technique called _________ became quite popular as a means of heightening dramic impression of words through musical tricks
text painitng
Palestrina's ___________ mass was said to have single handedly daved polyphonic church music during the renaissance.
parody
what is consonance?
tones at rest. a consonant chord is pretty stable; it either is or it isn't.
when is it proper to applaud at a concert attendance?
applaud when the the concertmaster (first violinist) enters the stage
is it proper to applaud after two movements of a five movement song?
no, it is customary to applaud after all the movements have been completed
At an opera, it is bad to applaud during the concert.

f or t
false

it is perfectly acceptable at an opera