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204 Cards in this Set

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the surface activity of music based upon duration of musical sounds. (ex. Tongue)
the underlying pulse of music (ex. Hand beating)
refers to the rate of speed of beats.
a mechanical device used to give precise speeds of beats.
the organization of beats into groups or patterns.
the length of a pattern (meter) of beats.
the vertical lines that show where beat patterns begin and end.
bar lines
refers to music that has no strong sense of beat or meter.
the stressing of normally unstressed beats.
the succession of single pitches set to rhythm.
the distance between 2 pitches.
melodies often mirror linguistic structure, where phrases combine to create sentences.
melodic structure
a more or less incomplete melodic idea that ends with a cadence.
a resting point in music that occurs at the end of the phrase.
a resting point where the music feels like it must continue on. Similar to a comma
incomplete cadence
a resting point that gives the listener a feeling of completion. Similar to a period.
complete cadence
a complete musical thought (made up of 2 or more phrases) that ends with a complete cadence.
musical sentence
refers to repeating a melodic fragment at different pitch levels. ( The melodic pattern begins on successively lower higher notes) Ex. Beethoven
the sounding together of 2 or more notes.
3 or more notes sounded together: the basic building block of harmony.
refers to playing the notes of a chord separately.
broken chord
the movement from one chord to another chord.
a series of pitches arranged in order.
the first and most important note of a scale, often referred to as the key or keynote.
tonic, keynote or key
mode that is thought of as happy.
major mode
mode that is thought of as sad.
minor mode
the movement from one key to another key.
refers to combinations of pitches that sound pleasing.
refers to combinations of pitches that sound harsh or unpleasant.
refers to how musical layers are heard at once and how they relate to each other.
musical texture
created by a single, unaccompanied melodic line. (It is the most ancient of all musical textures.)
monophonic texture
created by the layering of melodies, 2 or more different melodies sounding together, the same melody accompanies itself.
polyphonic texture
a type of polyphonic texture where a melodic idea is presented in one part and is restated in other parts.
another word commonly used to refer to polyphonic texture.
created by a primary melody accompanied by secondary harmony (chords). Songs from the radio.
homophonic texture
ways in which composers explored all possibilities of a melodic idea including
contrapuntal devices:
1. Inversion- a melody upside down.
2. Retrograde- a melody backwards.
3. Retrograde inversion- backwards and upside down.
4. Augmentation- making note values longer.
5. Diminution- making note values shorter.
refers to the arrangement of musical ideas; based upon the concepts of repetition, contrast and variation.
musical form
the restatement of a musical idea of section; provides sense of unity.
change in the music; provides sense of variety.
a modified or changed version of something that was heard before; combines both repetition and contrast. Something must remain the same.
2 part form A-B
binary form
3 part form A – B – A
ternary form
a melodic idea that servers as a building block of a composition.
the smallest building block of music; takes on significance through repetition.
a complete musical unit in a multi-movement work. Ex. Suit.
refers to the levels of loudness or softness.
plucking the string with a finger.
playing 2 strings at the same time.
rocking the finger on the string to produce slight changes in pitch (frequency).
the rapid bowing of the note.
delicate high pitches produced by lightly touching the string when playing.
a device that softens the tone.
clarinets, saxophones
single reed instruments
oboe, English horn, bassoon
double reed instruments
the manner in which notes are played.
Legato- notes smoothly connected
Staccato- notes are separated / detached
refers to the instrument or group that performs a piece. Examples are:
String quartet, orchestra and piano solo
a term used to define a broad category of works. The following are examples of the use of this word :
Concerts, symphonies, and sacred music.
Date of the medieval period
the medieval period is often referred to this
middle ages
music is used in worship or other activities of religious ritual.
sacred music
music refers to non-religious music
secular music
the official liturgical music of the Roman Catholic Church. Codified by Pope Gregory 1st (The Great) about 600 AD. Characteristics are..1. monophonic texture
2. non metric
3. based on scales known as old church modes.
4. uses a latin text
5. text settings: syllabic or melismatic
6. sung a cappella, without instruments
gregorian chant
a text set with one syllable per note
a text set with many notes on one syllable.
scales used in the medieval and renaissance periods, having different arrangements of half and whole steps than the scales we use today.
old church modes
refers to the first examples of polyphonic music, originating around 1000AD.
the official liturgical rite of the Roman Catholic Church.
the mass
a sacred vocal composition in polyphonic texture with a Latin text, sung a capella.
(medieval period): of various social classes, sang songs and played dance music.
troubadours and trouveres
rather seedy, despicable characters of lower social order.
the most important composer of the 14th (1300’s) century. Most famous for writing the first complete setting of the Ordinary of the Mass (“Notre Dame” Mass). Wrote many chansons (songs) based on poems of courtly love and chivalry.
means "songs"
Date of Renaissance Period
sung without instruments
a cappela
refers to the use of musical gesture to depict particular words of text.
word painting
the most significant composer of the Renaissance, who flourished about 1500. (Was significant on future generations as Beethoven.)
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo,Sanctus and Agnus Dei are part of what music.
Ordinary of the Mass
Kyrie- (3 times)- prayer for mercy
Gloria- praise
Credo- statement of belief
Sanctus- (3 times)- hymn of praise
Agnus Dei- (3 times)- prayer for mercy
active last half of 1500’s, associated with the counter- reformation.
the secular counterpart of the motet, composed as a source of entertainment with texts dealing with pastoral or amorous subjects.
Date of Baroque Period
first significant opera composer: “Orfeo” - first significant opera; “Coronation of Poppea” (opera) based on history rather than mythology, The characters are anything but heroes.
most important English composer of Baroque: “Dido and Aeneas” (opera) , Dido’s Lament- one of the most famous arias of the Baroque Period, its melody unfolds above a slow moving bass line that repeats over and over again.(ground bass or ostinato bass) The descending bass line expresses grief.
greatest master of polyphonic techniques, associated with Lutheran church music; composed the “Brandenburg Concertos,” cantatas, “St. Matthew Passion”
Worked as a court musician and church musician, greatest organist in his day. Later years worked at St. Thomas Church in Leipzig. Musical style tends to be serious and somewhat introverted. Bach: Cantata No. 80 (A mighty fortress is our God)- contains arias, recitatives and choruses. Many of the movements are based upon the hymn tune (A mighty fortress). First movement is a fugue for chorus. Each phrase of the chorale tune is successively set in imitative polyphony as a small fugue. Very complex! Requires many listenings to fully understand. Final movement is a hymn-like setting where the congregation was invited to sing along
famous for his oratorios; wrote “Messiah,” most famous oratorio of all time; also wrote “Water Music Suite” (an example of an orchestra suite, hornpipe (kind of dance). Was a german composer writing Italian operas for English audiences. Personality was opposite that of Bach, was a cosmopolitan and extroverted. Wrote the most famous oratorio of all time in 24 days called Messiah.
famous for writing over 450 Baroque concertos; “The Four Seasons” (concertos) a set of 4 solo concertos.
The first movement is called, “Spring”. Ritornello form alternation of tutti and soloist throughout the movement.
These people were part of what period...Milton, Rubens, Rembrandt, Descartes, Galileo, Harvey, Newton
Baroque Period
a term applied to visual arts that later was used for all arts. It was a negative term ( related to irregularity) and came to mean elaborate, distorted, gaudy, out-of-balance, flamboyant and bizarre.
A system where the wealthy aristocracy and the churches supported artists; artists were servants to both types of patrons.
patronage system
These are characteristics of what kind of music?
1. unity of mood- a movement would maintain the same mood or emotional state from start to finish.
2. rhythmic drive- rhythm became the underlying driving force behind most Baroque music. Serves to capture sense of MOTION in the art, based upon constant re-using of small rhythmic motives.
3. continuous melody- much different than pop music today; an elaborate spinning forth of melody based upon repetitions and sequences of patterns.
4. terraced dynamics- sudden changes in levels of loud and soft brought about by the sudden addition or subtractions of instrumental forces.
5. texture- predominantly polyphonic, with homophonic texture used in opera.
6. words and music- word painting continues throughout the Baroque.
7. new harmonic system emerges (major and minor scales that are still used today). Also modulation was used. Within this new system music could establish different notes as a tonic (do) and create longer works based upon motion away form and back to the original key. Also Figured Bass was used. This is a kind of musical shorthand using numbers (figures) above or below the bass notes that indicated the kind of chord to be played. Also the Bass Continuo was used. This is comprised of 2 performers; one (cello or other low instrument) played the bass line, and a keyboard player to realize the chords of the “figured bass.”
8. improvisation- refers to making up music as one goes along.
characteristics of baroque music
held that certain musical devices could affect and create various emotional states in the listener.
doctrine of affections
a play set to music, with scenery costumes, acting on stage, most parts of the text are sung and accompanied with orchestra
opera-(Plural of “opus” meaning work. Opera is the works!) Most Baroque opera stories were taken from Greek and Roman mythology.
a group of aristocratic intellectuals who sought to revive the dramatic / musical art of the ancient Greeks.
florentine camerata
a new style of texture (homophonic!): a single melody with simple harmonic accompaniment. Served as the vehicle to clearly convey the text in operas.
an orchestra introduction (similar to previews before a movie).
a song for solo voice, often a piece that displayed vocal virtuosity.
declamatory, speech like sections with simple accompaniment that carry the drama forward.
group of solo singers. (duets, trios, quartets etc..) that perform together as part of the interaction of the drama.
a group of singers that may represent townspeople, a crowd, sailors, etc..
"little book”, this term refers to the actual script of the opera written by the librettist.
the poet who writes the script for the opera.
crowning stars of the opera, these were the young boys with beautiful voices who were castrated to preserve their high vocal range. As they grew older, they developed vocal power and tremendous range.
its melody unfolds above a slow moving bass line that repeats over and over again
ground bass
typically a sacred composition intended for religious services (protestant). Duration is about 20-30 minutes long. Used operatic elements: arias and recitatives and the chorus played an important role. Purpose in the service was one of teaching, where music would speak to the heart while the sermon spoke to the head. often related to the sermon topic of a given Sunday.
a hymn tune that often served as the melodic basis for a cantata in Lutheran services.
a complex musical structure based upon imitation of a primary melody called the subject. The subject is imitated successively by the other parts. Differs from a round or canon in that the imitation is not continuous.
the sacred counterpart of the opera: an unstaged musical drama on a religious topic. Typically they contain arias, recitatives, ensembles and choruses
oratorio..Messiah was the most famous oratorio of all time. It was composed in a mere 24 days by Handel
an oratorio written by JS Bach (called St. Matthew Passion) devoted exclusively to the passion and death of Jesus Christ, usually performed the Sunday before Easter.
Opening Chorus- 2 choirs, 2 orchestras, soloists and boys choir.
Orchestras and choirs perform their own music: boys choir sings a hymn (chorale)
on top of all of this in long notes.
Whenever Christ sings he is given a halo (high sounding strings).
a soloist
solo concerto
a group of soloist. An example is Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 (features 3 soloists, violin, flute and harpsichord. Ritornello form.
concerto grosso
features a soloist or a group of soloists (concerto grosso) with orchestral accompaniment.
baroque concerto
a form in which a section of music returns in part or in total again and again throughout a movement.
ritornello form
played by all instruments, the other sections are played featuring the soloist and the orchestra drops out. This produces terraced dynamics which is sudden changes in loudness levels arising out of the addition or subtraction of instrumental forces.
identifies the soloist (s)
identifies the accompanying orchestra
refers to all the combined forces that play the ritornello.
a collection of stylized dances.
This describes what period?

elegance, balance, simplicity, symmetry, proportion
Classical Period
These are the characteristics of what period?

1. Rise of middle class amateur musicians.

2. Musical structures begin to model linguistic patterns providing clarity and symmetry.

3. time of tremendous social and political upheaval changing social values were brought about by flowering of the age of enlightment.

4. educated middle class wanted a larger piece of the political action

5. validity of aristocratic rule seriously questioned

6. general concern for common man and good.

7. philosophical perspective: reason alone could solve man’s problems, tradition and emotional reactions did not serve the highest good.

8. time of the American and French revolutions.

9. collapse of the patronage system

1. contrast of mood- conflict is a feature of sonata form.
2. rhythmic flexibility- greater diversity of rhythm patterns.
3. homophonic texture predominates- a rejection of the complexity of baroque polyphonic style.
4. melodies constructed like verbal sentences- phrases and cadences form clear melodic structures.
5. Dynamics- terraced dynamics replaced by gradual changes in loudness and softness.
“father” of the Classical style, the symphony, sonata form, string quartet. 104 symphonies: No. 94 = “Surprise”(slow movement in theme) and No. 104 = “London” (sonata form movement and begins with a drone). “Emperor” String Quartet. Wrote the Trumpet Concerto the 3rd. Concertos typically have 3 movements rather than 4: fast-slow-fast tempo scheme. Born in the rural area of lower Austria. Entered into the service of Prince Esterhazy. Musical style is optimistic, robust and good humored.
greatest contributions: operas (Marriage of Figaro (social criticism- enlightment as lip service, First night’s rights), Don Giovanni ( social criticism- sexual addiction, classical concerto form- first movement: Piano concerto No. 27 ), The Magic Flute) and crystallized the “classical concerto form (having a double exposition and a cadenza).” Most precocious musical genius of all time. Age 5 composed piano pieces, 8 composed first symphony, 11 composed first oratorio, and 12 composed first opera. Music became too sophisticated for Viennese people. Sister turned against him when he got married. Struggled to make ends meet in the last years of his life. Lived lavishly and beyond his means. On his deathbed he spoke of having solved their financial troubles. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik- ideal , movement 1- sonata form, movement 4- sonata-rondo form.
musical giant who wrote many of his greatest works while deaf. Personality of this artist is present in each of his works. “Eroica” Symphony, “Pastoral” Symphony, “Choral” Symphony. Fifth Symphony is autobiographical. Also wrote “Moonlight” Sonata and “Emperor” Concerto.
These events happened in what period?

American Revolution
Industrial Revolution
French Revolution
refers to a multimovement work of 3 or 4 contrasting movements in various tempos and forms. Was so common that these were simply identified by the medium of performance. (example..string quartet, symphony, piano trio, etc..)
Tempo scheme: fast-slow-moderate-fast
Formal scheme:
1st - sonata form
2nd - theme/variations
3rd - minuet and trio
4th - rondo, sonata, sonata-rondo
sonata cycle
a single movement form (often referred to as sonata-allegro form).
sonata form..
Mozart symphony No.40 is in sonata form.
Exposition- exposes musical ideas, sets up a conflict between 2 keys.
primary theme- establishes key
transition- moves to new key
secondary theme(s)- in new key
closing theme- ends the exposition
Development- takes musical ideas from the exposition and develops them. The most
unstable section of the movement- frequent modulations to new keys.
Recapitulation- a restatement of the exposition with all of the music in the original key-
resolution of conflict.
(Coda)- means tail- a section of music that brings a movement or work to a more
satisfactory close.
a form in which a complete musical idea (the theme) is followed by a series of changed versions of itself (variations).
theme and variations
used as the 3rd movement of a 4 movement cycle. An example is Fine Kleine Nachtmusik the 3rd by Mozart.
minuet and trio
musical forms based upon the return of a theme (rondo theme, or refrain). Related structurally to the pattern of ritornello form.
rondo forms..

a) 5-part (“short”): A B A C A
(b) 7-part (“Classical”): A B A C A B A (an example is Fine Nachtmusik the 2nd by Mozart).
music composed for one player on each instrumental part. (example is a rock and roll band. Predominant chamber medium during the classical period: string quartet (2 violins, 1 viola and 1 cello.) Emperor string quartet is one example by Haydn.
chamber music
found in the first movements of concertos, first exposition is for orchestra alone, second exposition includes the soloist.
double exposition
sections in concertos where the soloist plays alone, during Mozart’s time they were improvised.
When was the Romantic Period?
• Aspires to become a concert pianist, but permanently injures his left hand on a device intended to strengthen his fingers.
• Forced to give up public performing.
• Focused instead on composition and also music criticism.
• Becomes a prolific composer and becomes music critic.
• Marries Clara Wieck (1840)
• Struggles with mental illness (1853 and earlier)
• Attempts suicide (1854)
• Spends last few years of his life alone in a mental ward.
• Dies in 1856.
• Known for his symphonies, piano music, chamber music and Lieder.
• Established an important literary magazine for music criticism.
• Wrote many works for his fiancé ( and subsequent wife) Clara.
• Associated with 19th century fantasy, subjective emotionalism and German romaniticism in music.
Robert Schumann
• Robert Schumann’s wife
• Gifted concert pianist who toured extensively.
• Raised 7 children.
• Devoted to her husband and his music.
• Known as the high priestess of the piano.
• Had been encouraged as a musician by her father Friedrich Wieck.
• Life long friend of Johannes Brahms and was acquainted with Chopin, Liszt and other important musicians of the 19th century.
• Leading interpreter of the music of Brahms, Chopin and Robert Schumann.
Clara Wieck
• Wrote almost exclusively for the solo piano
• Born in Poland of Polish /French parentage.
• Established himself as a concert pianist in Paris.
• Wrote many works “character pieces” for the solo piano bearing such titles as:
1. Nocturne (E flat major)
2. Ballade
3. Waltz
4. Polonaise (A flat major)
Frederic Chopin
composed "Les Preludes" (symphonic poem using thematic transformation)

• Perhaps the greatest pianist of the 19th century.
• Used the term “recital” for his solo performances.
• “The Little Bell” (La Campanella) is a short lyric piece for solo piano. Virtuosic and programmatic.
• Uses thematic transformation to unify his symphonic poems. This theory is similar to Darwins theory of evolution.
• Famous for Les Preludes
Franz Liszt
"Italian" Symphony

• Born into a wealthy, prominent Jewish family. His sister Fanny was also a gifted composer.
• Famous for the rediscovery of Bach’s St. Matthew Passion, and performed it 100 years after it had been “lost”.
• Violin Concerto (violin is played in addition to the orchestra right away, it is the opposite with Mozart songs). This work is a good example of the Romantic Concerto. Melody reigns supreme.
Felix Mendelssohn
"Nutcracker" (suite), Romeo and Juliette Overture (program music)

• One of the most popular of all classical composers because he composed directly from the heart.
• Not hounded by homosexual guilt. Was not troubled by his sexual orientation.
• His works include…
1. Nutcracker Ballet Suite- one of his most famous works.
2. Piano Concerto No.1- this is one of the most famous pieces ever.
3. Romeo and Juliet fantasy overture- musically depicts the fighting between the 2 families (Monatgue and Capulet) and the love between Romeo and Juliet. Death and funeral are musically expressed, but the return of the love theme at the end reminds us that NOTHING CAN KILL LOVE.
"A German Requiem"

• One of the most significant Romantic period composers.
• Followed in Beethoven’s footsteps in the realm of symphony.
• His style was often serious, profound, complex, but tender and romantic.
• Moved into the Schumann household to help Clara when Robert was placed into an asylum. They developed a deep love for each other that lasted a lifetime.
• Referred to as the “classical romanticist” because he chose to use the forms of the classical period, but invested them with the lush emotion of the Romantic style.
• Composed “A German Requium”. Composed it with the deaths of Robert Schumann and his mother in mind. Texts are in German but are not the frightening texts of the standard Roman Catholic Requiem. They provide comfort (not fear) for the living.
"Rigoletto" (opera) Requiem (Mass for the Dead)

• Most important Italian opera composer of the romantic period.
• Referred to as “The Lion of Opera”.
• Intimately associated with the unification of Italy about 1870 and served as a member of Italy’s first parliament.
• Most famous operas:
1. Rigoletto (watched in class), La donne mobile is a famous aria from this opera.
2. La traviata (The lost one)
3. Aida
4. Requiem Mass-once described as Verdi’s greatest opera because of it’s dramatic impact
• Slogan: Victor Emmanuel Rex di Italia = Verdi.
• is known today as a composer of art songs (600+) and composer of the “Unfinished” Symphony.
• Struggled to make ends meet, “Was not good at vocational duties; was supported by his many friends.
• Died of syphilis at age 31
Franz Shubert
"Symphonie fantastique" (program symphony)

Emotionally unstable (bi-polar personality disorder) composer who wrote a program symphony (“Symphonie fantastique”), based upon hallucinations he had after attempting suicide with opium.

He wrote the first textbook on “orchestration” – a “how-to” manual on writing for instruments, even though he only played the flute and guitar quite badly!!

“Symphonie fantastique”

As a program symphony, each movement bears a descriptive title. The symphony is unified by a fixed idea (“idee fixe”) that recurs in every movement and represents his beloved (actress Harriet Smithson).

Movement IV: “March to the Scaffold”
Our hero has killed his beloved and must face his death at the guillotine. Music is erratic, eccentric and after hearing the melody fragment at the end, his head is chopped off.

Movement V: “Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath”
Ghoulish music and strange sounds depict the nightmare of Hell, where he finds his beloved dancing with witches!
Most significant German opera composer of the Romantic Period.

Music genius but a total jerk as a human being

Intensely anti-semitic (hated jews)
Political Renegade
Ruthless: used / abused people
Extremely selfish and self centered.

Called his operas music dramas.
Called the overtures to his operas preludes.
Unifies his operas through use of leitmotifs.
Letmotifs are musical fragments that represent a person, place or thing often given names.

The ring of the Nibelung- a cycle of 4 operas based upon Norse mythology.

Tristan and Isolde (opera): Liebestod (“Love Death”) good example of Wagner’s style. Programmatic element in the orchestral music: sexual orgasm!
Last of the great Viennese symphony composers. His last unfinished 10th symphony reflects the breakdown in the musical language as it is related to the breakdown in the USE of language in Europe in the early part of the 20th century.

Every symphony was a universe, every moment was a world.

Music reflects a mixture of the sublime and grotesque, a reflection of the surface beauty of Viennese life, but a life that was very “sick” under the surface.

“Neccessity is the Mother of Invention”, Freud sought to uncover the sickness of Viennese society.

“Kindertotenlider” (songs on the death of children) a song cycle for soprano and orchestra.

“When your dear little mommy”
“8th symphony: Symphony of a thousand”
• The 1800’s saw a rise in national fervor, especially among the lesser countries of Europe that were dominated by larger countries (ex. Austria, Hungarian, Empire over Behemia.
• Composers wrote music reflecting folk style (song) folk rhythms (dance) and folk tales (stories).
What kind of nationalism is this..created by Mussorgsky?
“Coronation Scene” from the opera, Boris Godunov.
What kind of nationalism does this composer make?
Nationalism from what country..the composer is Smetana

Czechoslovakia)- “The Moldau” is a symphonic poem depicting the sights of the river from its inception as 2 springs to where it moves majestically through its capital, Prague.
Nationalism from what country..the composer is Dvorak. student of Smetana, who came to America and wrote a symphony capturing some of the sights and sounds of the country: The New World Symphony.
Third movement: ABACABA (7 part rondo form)
A= Indians on warpath
B= Cowboy tune
C= Bohemian dance

Was a great supporter of African-American composers- he thought that their music was true American music.
a song for solo voice and piano accompaniment.
art song, lied or lieder.
• Piano plays a vital role in establishing the mood. Art songs offer a particular intimacy of expression.
• Also referred to using the German word lied. The plural form is Lieder.
the same music is used to accompany all verses of text. Example: Schone Mullerin.
different music is used for the various verses of text.
a collection of songs (Lieder) based upon a single story, concept, idea, or based upon the poems of a single poet.
song cycle
concerned with musical ideas exclusively.
absolute music
• Music that attempts to depict non-musical concepts, events, stories, ideas, feelings, etc.
• Different from absolute music which is concerned with musical ideas exclusively.
• Evident in such works as Vivaldi’s “The four seasons” and Beethovens Symphony 6 “The Pastoral”.
program music
a single-movement work bearing a title and depicting a story. The musical forms are “free” (not rondo or sonata form, for example; form is determined by the story itself.
symphonic poem
a multi-movement orchestral work (symphony) that bears a title; each movement also has it’s own title. Example: Beethoven’s Symphony No.6 Pastoral and Berlioz’s symphonic fantastique.
program symphony
a work often used to begin a concert, it is usually in sonata form. Example: 1812 by Tchaikovsky.
concert overture
music intended to accompany a dramatic work on stage (like a play).
incidental music
elaborating or varying a musical idea, revealing it’s capacity for growth.
thematic transformation
a mass for the dead. Latin texts, derived form Medieval Period. Missing are the Gloria and Credo (means I believe).
Who composed Erl King (art song), "Unfinished" Symphony?
Who composed Nocturnes and Polonaises?
Who composed "Italian" Symphony?
Who composed Symphonie fantastique" (program symphony)?
Who composed Boris Godunov" (opera)?
Who composed The Moldau" (symphonic poem)?
Who composed Les Preludes" (symphonic poem using thematic transformation)?
Who composed "A German Requiem"?
Who composed "Nutcracker" (suite), Romeo and Juliette Overture (program music)?
Who composed "Rigoletto" (opera) Requiem (Mass for the Dead)?
Who composed Ring of the Nibelung (4), "Liebestod" (from Tristan and Isolde)?
Who composed "New World" Symphony?
Who composed "Symphony of a Thousand" and "Kindertotenlieder" (song cycle)?
When was the Modern Period?
known for quantum physics, smeared electrons (means smeared electrons) and entanglement.
Bohr and Heisenberg
out of body experience/ near death experience
Gaia hypothesis
Why are there so many isms in modern music?
The late works of Mahler foreshadowed the collapse of the “tonal” musical language: the language of Bach, Beethoven and Brahms…

The “breakdown occurred in 2 major European cities: Paris and Vienna.

Modern composers were left to pick up the pieces and form their own new styles.
Modern composers re-evaluated the basic concepts of what?
harmony melody rhythm tone color
What city was impressionism rapant?
What was a movement in art that influenced music. It was based upon the visual effects of light, color and atmosphere.
These painters were often NOT defined by distinct lines and they were evocative.
The chief impressionist composer of the modern period where the emphasis in music was based upon sonority (color and quality of sounds).
This composer created a musical language more suited to the French personality and reacted against German style of music making?
This composer used these different kind of scales..
1. Pentatonic- a 5 note scale (black notes of a piano).
2. Whole tonic- having no half steps.
3. Old Church modes- (Gregorian chant)
Who composed "Prelude to the afternoon of a Faun".
Expressionism was rapant in what city?
This attempted to portray the dark, anguished side of the human psyche through grotesque distortion and the avoidance of anything that previously resembled beauty.
expressionism..It’s language was atonal- a style of music that avoided any “tonal center” and was intentionally ugly.
Who was the composer of atonal expressionist music?
refers to music without a melody in the traditional sense.
a song cycle of 21 songs (arranged in 3 sets of 7) that depict insanity. The singer uses “sprechstimme”, a style of singing that is a cross between speech and singing. Distortion of human voice.
Pierrot Lunaire
a method of composing music using all 12 pitches in a series (row). Invented by Schoenberg.
The name of this cantata for narrator, men’s chorus and orchestra. Only expressionist music could be used to depict the horror of the Nazi regime.
"A Survivor from Warsaw”-
whose style looks back the the 19th century. Wrote the expressionist opera, “Wozzeck” (watched in class, no aria’s).
whose style is highly abstract, and looks forward into the future.
Schoenberg's 2 pupils
Berg and Webern
the return to the style of the classical period, but with modern harmonies. Primary composer: Prokofiev, who wrote “Peter and the Wolf” and the “Classical” symphony.
a style of music based upon the use of harsh, pounding rhythms. Example, “Rite of Spring” by Stravinsky (scotch tape composer).
a melodic idea that repeats over and over again. (related to the word , obstinate which means do not change).
What kind of Nationalism can be seen in Stavinsky’s “Petruska”
What kind of Nationalism can be seen in many of the works of Bartok, including his “Concerto for Orchestra” and “Music for Strings”, Percussion and Celesta.
The 4th movement of Bartok’s Concerto for Orchestra (“Interrupted Intermezzo”) contains this which is typical of Eastern European music.
was an important collector of Eastern European folk tunes (about 6000).

American Nationalism- represented in a number of his ballets, including “Appalachian Spring”, “Rodeo” and “Billy the Kid”.
often referred to as the “Dean of American Music” because of his association with American universities.
American composer of Jewish background whose style mixed the “classical” tradition and African-american jazz elements.

Famous for:

Rhapsody in Blue- piano concerto
An American in Paris- symphonic poem
Porgy and Bess- folk opera (watched in class)