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73 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How long did the middle ages last?
1000 years
Who did the music have to be approved by?
by church
Who invented notation?
Gudo d'Grezzo
what kind of music occured during the middle ages?
chants, plainchants in churches, singing words
What is a Mass?
a lenghty ceremony that would happen more than once a day, no fewer than 8
What is plainchant? whats another name for it?
a great repertory of melodies designated for the many religious texts to be sung at services throughout the year, gregorian chant
Who was the pope during the Middle ages?
Gregory the 1st
what is gregorian recitation?
the single note used for musical recitation with brief melodic formulas for beginning and ending
what is antiphon?
a genre of plainchant usually showing a simple melodic style with few melismas
who was Abbess Hildegard?
really well know woman composer during the middle ages, composed planichant melodies
What is sequence?
a much more elaborate kind of melody than the antiphon, short tunes sung twice, with some variation
What are jongleurs?
a medieval secular musician, popular
What are medieval modes?
not construed in the major/minor system
What are troubadours?
noble poet-composers of court songs who we are told, preformed the songs themselves in France
What kind of troubadours performed in Germany?
Minnesingers
What kind of music was polyphony during the Medieval period?
Western music
What is polyphony?
the simultaneous combination of two or more melodies-risen in europe
What is the organum?
the 1st earliest type of polyphony,
When did the organum be created?
in 1000.
Who were the two comosers working in Notre Dame on organum? what did they compose?
Master Leonin, and Perotin,
4 voice polyphony
When did Machaut live? what did he create?
1300-1377, he created isorythm
What is isorythm?
technique of writing successive lengthy passages in identical rhythms bit with distinct melodies.
Where did the Renaissance of music start?
in Italy
When was the Renaissance Period?
1400-1600
What is paraphrase?
the modification and decoration of plainchant melodies i early Renaissance music.the embellished chants with extra notes, graceful rhythms
What occured during the Renaissance?
the beginning of homophony
What is homophony?
the music in a harmonic texture, when the melody is played with the accompaniment of chords. being harmonized
What is the performances of voices singing along?
acapella
Who is Guillame Dufay?Where was he born?
he came up with the hymn, born in France, lived between 1400-1474
What is a hymn?
one of the most tuneful of plainchant genres.
Who is JOsquin Desprez? When did he live and where was he from?
he was the first master of the HIgh Renaissance, born in France, and lived from 1450-1521, wrote 18 different settings of the Mass
What happened in the Mass?
they rejected isorhythm and used more simpler, gentler and supple music, consists of 5 movements, written for the Roman Catholic church
What are the 5 movements of the Mass?
kyrie, gloria, credo, sanctus, and agnus Dei
When did the High Renaissance start? what was it?
around 1500, change in the polyphony
What happened to the polyphony during the High Renaissance?
became imitative
What is imitation?
musical texture in which the various melodic lines use approximately the same themes.
What is madrigal, when did it develop and where?
developed in 1530, in Italy , it is a short composition set to a 1-staza poem-typically a love poem, with a rapid turnover of ideas and images. 1 singer per part.
What developed after the madrigal?
the English madrigal.
Who was Thomas Weelkes? When was he born?
one of the best composers of English madrigal. born in 1575-1623
What was the most popular instrument during the Renaissance era?
the lute
What is pavane?
one of the most popular solemn dances in duple meter, with participants stepping and stopping formally
What is galliard?
usually paired with pavane, a solemn dance in triple meter
Who was Giovanni Palestrina? when was he born and where?
born in 1525-1594, born in Italy, he wrote hundreds of Masses
When did the Baroque period start and last?
started in 1700 and lasted til' 1750
What occured with bar lines, rhythm and meters in the Baroque era?
rhythms became more definite, regular and insistent, the meter is now accepted, bar lines are beginning to be used for the first time
What is basso continuo?
in a baroque scale the bass line is performed by bass voices or low instruments such as cellos or bassoons
What is basso ostinato?
another name for the ground bass "persistent" or "obstinate" bass,
What is ground bass?
music constructed literally from the bottom up, "repeated harmonies"
What is opera?
drama presented in music, with the characters singing instead of singing
What new music developed during the Baroque period?
opera
What is recitative during the Baroque period?
the technique of declaiming words musically in a heightened theatrical manner
What is aria?
an extended piece for solo singer that was much more musical elaboration and coherence than a passage of recitative
What happened to dynamics during the Baroque period?
they were not written
What did the orchestra have in it during the Baroque period?
6 violins, 6 cellos, 12 violas, 2 contra bass, and 1 harp
What is the festive orchestra?
used brass and percussion along with the normal instruments of an orchestra
Who is Anotonio Vivaldi?when did he live?
lived from 1678-1741, champion of 400 conertos, violinist
What is a concerto?
latin word to contest, to contend contest between solo and orchestra
What is ritornello?
the name for the orchestral music at typically starts the movement off. stable, 1st movement
What is a movement?
a self-contained section of music that is part of a larger work, chapter in book ex.
Describe the movements in a concerto.
1st movement-brigh extravagant piece, fast tempo,
2nd movement-contrast, quieter, slower, and more emotional
3rd movement-faster than first, fast again
What is variation form? second movement of a concerto
entails the successive uninterrupted repitition of one cleaerly defined melodic unit, with changes that causes the listener's interest w/out losing touch with the theme.
Describe basso ostinato in instrumental form.
baroque variations tend to occur above stable bass patterns
What is a fugue?
a polyphonic composition for a fixed number of instrumental lines or voices,usually 3 or 4-built on a single principal theme
Who is Johann Sebastian Bach? when was he born?
1685-1750, wrote the Art of Fugue,
describe the 1st theme of fugue presented.
1. soprano-one melody, subject
2. alto-subject with new melody
3. tenor-subject appears in another voice
4. bass-subject play in particular melody
What is a dance suite?
to group a collectionm of misc. dances together in a genre.
name the distinguishing characterisitics of dance suites and their origin.
allemande,
courante,
sarabande,
minuet, bourree, gavotte
gigue
What is oratio?
basically an opera on a religious subject
Who is George Frideric Handel? when was he born>
1724, wrote operas, and oratio Messiah
What is cantata?
a general name for a piece of moderate length for voices and instruments, written in Germany to be performed in Lutheran Churhch servies
What is gapped chorale?
the chorale melody is delivered in spurts, can be sung, or played while music goes along in the toerh instruments and or voices
What did Bach write?
wrote cantatas, 200 survived
What is organ chorale?
an important genre of keyboard music at the time, is an organ composition incorporating a hymn tune