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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Timbre
tone color; a description of the “color” of sound; the quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another, the description/quality of sound
Drone
a stationary tone or tones, usually played or sung during a section of music or throughout an entire performance. Some instruments, such as bagpipes, constantly play a drone tone/note
Vibrato
vibration/fluctuation/pulsing of a pitch (a type of ornament)
Ornament
to “decorate” a note w/extra notes (typically notes adjacent to the original note) or musical effects
Microtone
notes whose tunings lie outside conventional western tunings; notes with intervals than a half step 9a half step is the smallest interval used in most “western music”)
Electronphone
instruments which produce sound purely by electrical means (shorthand – electric)
Chordophone
instruments which produce sound by means of a vibrating string (shorthand-string)
Membranophone
instrument which produces sound by means of vibrating flexible membrane (shorthand-drumhead)
Aerophone
an instrument, which produces sound by means of an air column (shorthand-wind, breath)
Idiophone
literally “self sounding”; broadly defined as an instruments which produces sound w/o the addition of a stretched membrane, vibrating string or reed; constructed of solid, non-stretchable material (shorthand-non of the above)
Military Music
instruments (drums, horns) used for communication. Inspiration & intimidation
Lamellaphone
plucked idiophone originated only on the African continent
Military Music
instruments (drums, horns) used for communication. Inspiration & intimidation
Lamellaphone
plucked idiophone originated only on the African continent
Theramin
Adhan
muslim call to prayer
Muezzin
performer of adhen
Umm Kulthum
(1904 -1975) most prominent singer in the Arab world in the 20th century. Career intersected w/technological developments & Egyptian nationalism
Maqam/maqamat
enhanced or melodic Arab scale
Zil
Ottoman Empire Cymbals
Zurna
Ottoman Empire: shawn (horn w/reed mouthpiece)
Mehter
Janissary/Ottoman military music ensembles
Mehter Instruments
Janissary
elite troops of the Ottoman Empire. New army for sultan. Had to pay w/ a kid (blood tax)
Boru
type of trumpet
Cevgen/Turkish Crescent
Ottoman Empire Idiophones
Hâl
mystical state of ecstasy; spiritual mood of performer & audience
Dastgâh
system of Iranian modes, but w/special rules for improvisation; a “parent mode”; a system of playing 12 modes, each w/numerous gushe
Tar
long-necked lute, has three double-strings and double-sound chamber (covered w/animal hide)
Santur
struck, trapezoid-shaped zither w/72 metal strings (in groups of 4); is hammered w/small mallets
Radîf
an ustads version of how to play dastgah material; a specific version of the IZ different modes
Daramad
opening piece that establishes dastgah; composed or improvised; often meterless
Ney
reed flute, end of the flute is held near the two front upper teeth; breathy timbre
Kamanche
fiddle (bowed chordophone); held upright on knee; nasal;strident timbre
Zarb/dombak (tombak)
goblet- shaped drum (membranophone)
Dayeh/daf
large grame drum (membranophone)
Tahrir
an ornament used by vocalists; specifically a trill or rapid oscillation between a different vocal registers
Chahar Mezrab
virtuosic instrumental solo w/driving rhythm and noticeable meter; often follows the daramad
Mbira
shona lamellaphone; used for religion, personal expression, entertainment
Chuning
elements of a particular mbiras sound (tuning, timbre, volume, etc.)
Mahon’era
normal singing voice in mid/low register
Chimurenga
“struggle” music. Popular music sung in shona, rose to prominence in 1970’s during the struggle for indigenous/black African rule
Ululation
very high-pitched ornamented cry (women only) approval, encouragement